1 Overview of the Article

This article is developed to give a general overview of a typical petroleum storage terminal or depot. It will cover some of the technical requirements to be fulfilled in designing and operating a storage terminal.

And will lay more emphasis on storage facilities for refined petroleum products such as Premium Motor Spirit (PMS), Automotive Gas oil (AGO), and Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK). Terminals storing Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) are not covered in this article.

The storage tanks described in this article are above ground atmospheric tanks. Low-pressure above-ground tanks are not covered in this article.

Most of the guideline and recommendations discussed in this article are referenced to the author’s general experience, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) codes, American Petroleum Institute (API) Standards, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes, Design and Engineering Practice (SPDC DEP’s), and the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines..

Figure 1: Satellite Imagery of Petroleum Products Storage Terminal

2 Introduction

Fuel is an essential hydrocarbon “commodity” in the day to day affairs of humans. It is used for energy generation, cooking, heating, etc. The above-listed use of fuel is achieved through the combustion of these hydrocarbon compounds to release energy.

Fuel can be in the form of liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon. Typical liquid hydrocarbon fuel includes Premium motor spirit, dual-purpose kerosene, automotive gas oil, liquefied petroleum gas, etc. while gaseous hydrocarbon fuel includes methane, ethane butane, etc.

Generally, most of the liquid hydrocarbons such as Gasoline (PMS), ATK, AGO, DPK are obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil.

Liquid hydrocarbons are the most widely used fuel to date except the current shift to hydrocarbon gas resulting from climate change-related issues.

The application of liquid hydrocarbon fuel cannot be overemphasised including

  • Use to power cars
  • Use in the generation of electricity
  • Used in the generation of heat
  • Use by various equipment’s including incinerators, pump drivers, etc

Fuel products are not directly drawn from the source and transported to end-users; they are temporarily stored in designated facilities. Crude oil is produced from wells, transported to refineries for processing into various forms of fuel, and sent to extensive storage facilities where they are temporarily held. Fuel is most times further transported to mini-storage facilities or dispensing facilities for onward delivery to end-users.

Storage facilities are sited in strategic locations guided by local and international regulations and company requirements.

The size of a fuel storage facility depends mostly on the market analysis, the holding capacity desired, and regulation requirements.

2.1 General Terms

2.1.1 Above Ground Storage Tanks

As defined in NFPA 30, section, above-ground storage tanks are those installed above grade, at grade, or below grade without backfill.

2.1.2 Atmospheric Tanks

As per NFPA section*, Atmospheric Tank is a storage tank that has been designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through a gauge pressure of 1.0 psi (6.9 kPa) (i.e., 760 mmHg through 812 mm Hg) measured at the top of the tank.

2.1.3 Vapour Pressure of a Liquid

As defined in section 4.2.6 of NFPA 30, this is the pressure measured in pounds per square inch, absolute (psia), exerted by a liquid, as determined by ASTM D 323, Standard.

2.1.4 True Vapour Pressure (TVP)

The True Vapour Pressure (TVP) is a measure of the volatility of petroleum distillate fuels. It is the equilibrium partial pressure that is exerted by a volatile organic liquid measured as a function of temperature. The true vapour pressure is estimated as per ASTM D 2879 (Standard Test Method for Vapour Pressure-Temperature Relationship and Initial Decomposition Temperature of Liquids by Isoteniscope)

2.1.5 Classification of Flammable Liquids.

Flammable liquids, as defined in section and 4.2.3 of NFPA 30, can be classified as per NFPA 30 section 4.3.1.  The table below is an extract from NFPA 30

2.1.6 Combustible Liquid

Combustible liquids, as defined in section and 4.2.2 of NFPA 30, can be classified as per NFPA 30 section 4.3.1. The table below is an extract from NFPA 30

2.1.7 Flash Point

This is the lowest temperature at which a hydrocarbon liquid (petroleum products) will give out sufficient vapour in the air near the surface of the liquid. The vapour can ignite on exposure to open flame. The flashpoint is used to indicate how flammable a liquid is. Below the flashpoint, the liquid does not generate enough vapour to support combustion.

2.1.8 Fire Point

As defined in section 3.3.20 of NFPA 30, the fire point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid will ignite and achieve sustained burning when exposed to a test flame per ASTM D92 (Standard Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester).

3 Factors to Consider Siting A Storage Facility

3.1 Local Regulations

Storage facilities are mostly restricted to designated areas. Most times, you find these storage facilities clustered in designated areas guided by local regulations. Generally, it is rare to see a new storage facility been constructed in a built-up area; they are sited at an appreciable distance away from residential areas.

3.2 Health and Safety Considerations

Before any other factor is considered in sitting a storage facility, the safety of the environment and people is the topmost priority. Detailed Environmental Impact analysis of the storage terminal should be performed before the final decision of siting the facility.

3.3 Market Analysis

Siting a storage facility is mostly dependent on the available market. The storage facility should be located close to the targeted market unless there are restrictions due to regulations.

It is the best decision to locate the storage terminal close to where the highest demand for the products is expected; this will also reduce the cost of transporting the products to the end-users.

3.4 Source of Product/Means of Receiving the Product

In many instances you find clusters of storage terminals close to refineries, these storage terminals store the refined products. It is a wise decision to site these facilities very close to reduce the cost of building long pipelines and associated infrastructures. Note that these storage terminals close to refineries are the primary storage facility for refined products. The products are further transported to other terminals.

3.5 Security

Security of storage terminal should be considered in the planning process. Storage terminals should not be sited in hostile communities or places susceptible to war.

Security considerations should not be limited to the storage terminal, but also of the reception facilities and pipelines.

In a situation whereby the security of the facility is not guaranteed, appropriate security must be put in place.

3.6 Means of Receiving and Evacuating the Products

The means of receiving the products is a crucial consideration. Most times, refined products are imported by countries; therefore, in the absence of cross Country pipelines, extensive storage facilities may be built close to reception facilities such as Wharves and Import Berth Platforms.

In The Niger Delta Area of Nigeria, there are clusters of storage terminals close to rivers outward the Atlantic Ocean. By sitting the storage facilities close to water bodies, the cost of building long pipelines is minimised.

Also, the means of evacuating the products is a very crucial consideration that should be critically evaluated.  In West Africa countries, Petroleum products are mostly transported by trucks from storage terminals to dispensing stations; therefore, the storage facility should be easily accessible. Locations with bad roads, roads not wide enough should be avoided to eliminate the possibility of an accident resulting from these conditions.

4 Main Components or Units of A Storage Terminal

The components of a storage terminal vary depending on the design philosophy of the terminal. Terminals whose products are evacuated using pipelines may be slightly different from terminals that products are evacuated by trucks. Terminals that trucks are used for product evacuation are equipped with loading gantries; this is absent in terminal that products are evacuated using pipelines.

Also, the type of storage tanks in a terminal might be different depending on the products stored.

4.1 Tanks

Tanks are the significant components of a storage Terminal; they hold the hydrocarbon products.

They are the most visible components of a storage Terminal and can be seen from a far distance.

In a facility, there are different tanks including product storage tanks, slop tanks, firewater tanks, portable water tanks and emergency diesel generator fuel storage tanks.

Below is a brief explanation of some of these tanks

4.1.1 Product Storage Tanks

These are the main components of a storage terminal; they hold the petroleum product volume until they are evacuated. The type of storage tank is a function of the product, the diameter of the tank, and local regulation.

Selection criteria will be further explained in subsequent sections; however, below are the major types of tanks found in storage terminals. Fixed Roof Type

These tanks are made of a cylindrical steel shell with a permanently fixed roof attached to the top of the shell. The fixed roof may be of dome shape or conical shape. There are also flat roof tanks, but these are rarely used.

For large diameter tanks, fixed roof tanks are used to store liquid hydrocarbon fuel that does not readily vaporise at the storage condition (temperature and pressure). Cone Roof Tanks

Like the name the roof is conical in shape, used to store a liquid that does not vaporise easily. The roof is mostly made from carbon steel plate materials supported by rafters and vertical members depending on the size of the tank. All the structural support members are evenly distributed around the tank. Dome Roof

These tanks have a self-supporting roof made from high strength aluminium alloy. They are called Aluminium geodesic dome roof because the roof is made of Aluminium material.

They provide cover for the tank and/or internal floating roof and can be installed on both new tanks or rehabilitated tanks.

In small to medium size tanks, dome roofs are assembled outside the tanks and lifted on top of the tank. While in large diameter tanks the dome roof may be assembled inside the tank and lifted to the top of the tank.

The choice of assembling the roof outside the tank also depends on available space beside the tank.

Figure 2: Tanks with Aluminium Dome Roof

Figure 3: Assembling of Dome Roof inside the Tank Floating Roofs

The roof of these tanks floats (rise and fall) with the liquid, instead of been permanently fixed to the top of the shell. A seal is installed between the roof and the shell to prevent foreign materials (water etc.) from entering and contaminating the product.

In floating roof tanks, there is usually limited vapour space between the roof and the product. Vapour only exists when the liquid level is very low, i.e. lower than the height of the support legs of the floating roof. This only occurs when the roof legs lands on the tank bottom, and more products are evacuated from the tank.

Some of the advantages of floating roofs tanks over the fixed roofs are

  • There is little or no ullage (vapour space) between the fuel and the roof because the roof mostly stays afloat seating on the product. Therefore emission to the atmosphere is limited. This is one of the significant reason floating roof tanks are very prominent because of environmental regulatory requirements.
  • Due to no vapour space, limited losses are resulting from product evaporation. This is a significant advantage of floating roof for tank sizes ranging from medium to large.
  • Because the roof is evenly supported most times by the liquid, the roof is stable and applicable to very large diameter storage tanks.

Major disadvantages of floating roof tanks are:

  • If the roof drain is blocked, there can be an accumulation of water on top of the roof, which will eventually lead to the collapse of the roof and the contamination of the liquid.
  • The roof is usually exposed to water and sunlight; this can speed up the corrosion of the roof.

Two types of floating roofs are used as explained below: External Floating Roof

These type of tanks has the roof seating on the product on an open-top tank. The roof will almost be at the top of the tank when the tank is filled while it is at the bottom of the tank at a designated height above the inlet and outlet nozzles when the tank is empty. These types of tanks are very prominent in storing volatile petroleum products; however, in recent times, they are mostly changed to internal floating roofs.

The roof of an external floating roof tank is mostly double deck to provide double protection for the liquid, aid buoyancy of the roof, minimise the chances of a single deck roof been stocked in small diameter tanks, and also to reduce the risk of fatigue cracking in large diameter tanks in areas with strong wind.

Figure 4: Inside View of an External Double Deck Floating Roof Tank

Figure 5: Outside View of External Floating roof Tank (No Roof Cover) Internal Floating Roof

These types of tanks have the floating roof installed inside a fixed roof tank. The tanks are mostly covered with an aluminium geodesic dome roof.

The internal roof is most time a single deck made of very light aluminium material.

4.1.2 Slop Tanks

Slop tanks are smaller compared to “Products Storage Tanks”, they are used to store products that are suspected to be contaminated.

They are made from carbon steel plates shop fabricated, or field erected depending on their size.

The products transferred to the slop tanks are those from drain lines, interface products received from pipelines, etc.

Slop tanks may be horizontal or vertical. Also, there might be more than one slop tank in a storage facility. There may be dedicated slop tanks for different interface products received in a facility.

Usually, the products in the slop tanks are allowed to settle and separate into layers before it is further transferred to the respective storage tanks.

Fluid separated in Slop tanks are taken to the laboratory for analysis before they are further transferred back to the tanks.

Figure 6: Two Small Slop Tanks

4.1.3 Firewater Tank

The firewater tank is used to store firefighting water. The tank is installed at a location outside the process area. In some instances where water from the open sea is utilised, the firewater tank will be smaller in size compared to when firefighting is solely dependent on the tank.

4.2 Main Firewater Pump/ Pump House

The main firewater pumps are part of the safety system of the facility; they are used to pressurise and deliver the quantity of water required for firefighting.

Minimum two numbers of firewater pumps should be installed in a facility.

The pumps should be located under a shelter (Pump House). Usually, the sparing philosophy should be at least N+1 (N= number of pumps running, one on standby). The pumps should be located away from the process area in a non-hazardous location close to the firewater storage tank. If the pumps take suction from an open-source river, the elevation of the pump should be well determined to prevent the pumps from cavitating.

In most facilities there are both electrically driven firewater pumps and diesel-driven pumps, this is to guard against power outage if only electrical pumps are installed.

Figure 7: Diesel Driven Firewater Pump

4.3 Jockey Pumps

Since it is not economical to continuously run the main firewater pump, jockey pumps are installed along with the main firewater pumps. Minimum two (2) jockey pumps should be installed in a facility. Their primary function is to keep the firewater ring main pressurised. Jockey pumps are specified to a maximum head they can deliver. In some cases, the jockey pumps run continuously while in other cases they run intermittently.

When the pumps run continuously, the jockey pump is equipped with a bypass line fitted with a pressure relief valve. When the pressure generated by the pump reaches the set point, the relief valve opens, and the water recirculates back to the storage tank.

When they are installed to run intermittently, the jockey pump is instrumented and comes up when the pressure in the line drops below a set point. The pressure drop, in this case, is not the large pressure drop experienced when a firewater monitor or hydrant is started during firefighting. In this case, the firewater ring main has pressure transmitters installed that communicate the jockey pump to start when there is a minor pressure drop to fill up and pressurise the line.

Figure 8: Electric Motor Driven Jockey Pump

4.4 Process Pumps

These pumps are used to transfer fuel products from the receiving facility to the storage tank, from one storage tank to another, or to evacuate products from storage tanks to the customers. The number of pumps depends on the products stored in the facility; however, a minimum of two pumps (one (1) running, another on standby) should be installed for each product.

The pumps for receiving products may be different from those to evacuate products from the facility. This depends on the size of pumps required to receive and evacuate products.

The product transfer pumps should not be installed in the same shelter as the firewater pumps. Fire suppression and the fighting system should be installed in the pump house and around the pump house.

4.5 Interconnecting Piping

Piping are the “arteries” of a storage Terminal connecting different components of the facility.

They are utilised for every operation that entails product transfers. Activities such as product reception, inter-tank transfer of products, and product evacuation are made possible by piping.

Pipe manifold may be installed at an appropriate location for easy diversion of flow to designated tanks. The manifold is mostly used to split products from a single source to different tanks or commingle products from different tanks into a single pipe. They are also used to achieve inter-tank transfer as well as interline transfer.

Figure 9: Product Reception Manifold

4.6 Valves

Valves are devices used to regulate, direct, or control the flow of a fluid. In storage terminals, valves are installed at an appropriate location such as inlet nozzles to tanks, manifolds, and locations where isolation or product control is required.

The most common valve in a storage terminal is the gate valve.

Gate valves are mostly used in storage terminals because they offer low flow resistance and can handle fluid with solid particles and high viscosity. They are very rugged.

Figure 10: Gate Valves Installed in Storage Terminal

4.7 Oily Water Separator

The separator is a critical component of a storage terminal because it helps to protect the environment from pollution. In a terminal, if liquid hydrocarbon spill on the ground and it rains, then these mixtures are transported to surrounding water bodies. To prevent pollution, all facility drains in areas with potential spills are channelled to the oily water separator. The free oil is skimmed and filtered out of the water. The water should be further treated before it is discharged out.

4.8 Electricity Generators

Electricity is crucial in the operation of a petroleum storage terminal. In developed countries, the electricity supply is guaranteed; however, in developing countries, the electricity supply is a significant problem. A backup electricity generator should be provided in areas with a guaranteed electricity supply. Facilities sited in locations with insufficient electricity supply should have a minimum of two electricity generator (one running, and the other on standby)

The generators should be located in a non-hazardous area away from the process area.

4.9 Administrative Building

The building should be located in a non-hazardous area away from the process area. Offices of personnel working in the terminal are located in this building except for those performing operations related tasks. Canteen and other utility activities may also be performed in the building or performed in another separate building.

4.10 Control Room

The control room is the driver of the facility. Most storage terminals are automated or semi-automated. In automated facilities, tank volumes are displayed, operating of valves and pumps are also performed from the control room.

The control room communicates with all field instruments such as temperature sensors, pressure indicator transmitters, flow meters, and initiates appropriate actions.

4.11 Loading/Unloading Facilities

Loading facilities are used for receiving products into the storage terminal. They may not be directly located at the storage terminal.

Facilities not receiving products from pipelines connected to refineries have this facility located at jetties, train stations, or wharves were sea vessels offload their products. The loading facility is connected to the terminal via a pipeline.

Unloading facilities are used for evacuating products from the storage terminal.

In some cases, the products are evacuated using pipelines, while they may be evacuated using trucks in other instances.

A loading gantry is required to load products into the truck.

The loading gantry is an assembling of steel structures and products unloading facilities. There is an elevated platform installed; the operator stands on the platform and directs the loading arm to fill the trucks.

The loading gantry should be equipped with flow meters to measure the volume of products transferred into the trucks.

Figure 11: Vessel Offloading Petroleum Product

Figure 12: Loading Gantry

5 Technical Consideration in Designing A Storage Terminal

5.1 Type of Storage Tank Selection

The selection of the type of storage tank is dependent on several factors including

  • Local regulations
  • Environmental considerations (Emission Control)
  • True Vapour Pressure (TVP) of the liquid
  • Flashpoint of the liquid
  • The diameter of the tank
  • Company requirements

A general rule of thumb used in selecting the type of storage tank is

  • Product True Vapour Pressure (TVP) at ambient temperature lesser than or equal to 1.5 Psia: use a fixed roof tank
  • Product True Vapour Pressure (TVP) at ambient temperature greater than 1.5 but lesser than or equal to 11.5: use floating roof

There are company-specific requirements in selecting tank type. SPDC has developed some guidelines for selection of storage tank type as shown in DEP

The table below is an extract from SPDC DEP The guideline is based on tank diameter and liquid flashpoint.

5.2 Selecting Tank Diameter and Height

There are several factors to consider in selecting optimum tank diameter and height; some of the critical considerations are stated below.

  • Availability of Space: When there is limited land available, the choice of selecting large diameter tanks becomes unrealistic. Also, there is a limitation in increasing the height as this will reduce the stability of the tank. API 650 Table A-1 to A-4b gives typical values of tank nominal capacities (Diameter vs Height) and the maximum diameter for certain heights of tanks.
  • Soil Bearing Capacity, which is the capacity of the soil to support the applied load, is a crucial factor. Large diameter tanks cannot be built on soil with low bearing capacity unless soil improvement is performed.
  • Emission Control: Large diameter fixed roof tanks emit more vapour into the atmosphere than medium and small diameter tanks. Therefore due to climatic reasons, there might be limitations imposed by local regulations in increasing tank diameter beyond a particular value.
  • Economic reasons: As previously stated, large fixed roof diameter tanks tend to emit more vapour than smaller diameter tanks, the vapour is the stored products lost to the atmosphere, which automatically leads to loss of revenue.

5.3 Tank Overfill Protection

All tanks in a facility should be designed with appropriate safeguards to prevent overfill.

Tank overfill leads to inventory losses, tank damage, environmental pollution and possible fire incidence.

Safeguards to be provided include level indicators, level alarms, level shutdown etc.

Overfill protection of tank guideline is stated in API 2350

5.4 Piping Material

In a typical storage terminal, there are minimum four (4) types of piping including products piping firewater piping, portable water piping and Utility piping.

5.4.1 Product Piping

Refined products are non-corrosive. Therefore, carbon steel piping material is mostly used. Carbon steel pipes mostly used include ASTM A106 Gr. B or C. API 5L. Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipes can also be used.

5.4.2 Firewater Piping

Depending on the cleanliness of the water utilised for firefighting, various materials may be utilised for firefighting. Galvanised carbon steel pipes used to be the dominant material; however, the use of HDPE pipes and GRE pipes are becoming more prominent due to their higher resistant against corrosion.

5.4.3 Portable Water Piping

Galvanised carbon steel pipes are ubiquitous for these applications; however, GRE/GRP pipes are becoming very pronounce because they offer more resistance to corrosion and chemical attack.

As per SPDC requirements stated in section 4.1.2 of DEP, there is a preference to the use of non-metallic piping for portable water piping. Also, there is a temperature limitation for galvanised carbon steel compared to GRP pipes. The maximum applicable temperature for galvanised pipes is 60oC while GRP pipes can be used for application up to 100oC

5.4.4 Utility/Instrument Air Piping

Carbon steel piping is used for dry instrument air piping; however, when the air is wet consideration should be given to GRP and stainless steel pipes. Also, internally lined carbon steel pipes can be used for a wet system.

GRE/GRP pipes are favoured for Drain/sewage piping.

5.5 Spacing Requirements

As previously stated, siting storage is stringently regulated, within the approved locations for storage terminal, there are minimum spacing requirements that must be observed.

The spacing required is a function of the class of liquid and the size of the tank.

5.5.1 Shell-to-Shell Spacing of Adjacent Aboveground Storage Tanks.

Tanks storing flammable liquid hydrocarbons (Class I, Class II, or Class IIIA) shall have minimum spacing as stipulated in Table of NFPA 30.  The table below is an extract from NFPA 30, showing the minimum required spacing.

5.5.2 Location with Respect to Property Lines, Public Ways, and Important Buildings.

For details of the minimum spacing requirement between storage tanks and line of properties refer to section 22.4 of NFPA 30. Table and Table gives the permissible spacing for Above-ground Storage Tanks Storing Stable Liquids with internal pressure not exceeding a gauge pressure of 2.5 psi (17 kPa)

5.6 Spill Control

All products storage tanks holding class I, Class II, or Class IIIA liquid shall be provided with means to prevent an accidental release of liquid stored in the tanks from endangering facilities and adjoining property or from reaching waterways. This is stated in section 22.11 of NFPA 30.

Spill control can be implemented by meeting the requirements stated in section 22.11.1, 22.11.2, 22.11.3, or 22.11.4 of NFPA 30. Two way of effecting spill control are stipulated in NFPA 30 these are

5.6.1 Remote Impounding

This entails drainage of the spill from the tank area to a remote location. The drainage route should be designed such that if the fluid is ignited the tanks and adjoining properties will not be seriously exposed. Some of NFPA requirements for remote diking are

  • The remote impounding area should not be lesser than 50ft (15m) from any property line.
  • The distance should be measured, taking into consideration the maximum fill volume of the impounded area.

5.6.2 Open Diking (Impounding Around the Tanks)

This entails building a bund wall around the tank. This is the most common spill control in petroleum storage terminals.

Some of the requirements stated in NFPA 30 as regards open diking include

  • The capacity of the dike (Bund wall) built around the tank shall not be lesser than the maximum liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the diked area.
  • Walls of the diked area (bund wall) shall be made of solid masonry, concrete, earth, steel. The dike shall be watertight designed to withstand the full hydrostatic head resulting from the spill volume.

Figure 13: Open Dike around a Tank

5.7 Firefighting system

Petroleum storage terminal shall have a functional firefighting system installed. The installed firefighting systems shall be as per NFPA standards or other applicable codes.

Some of the applicable NFPA standards are NFPA 10, 11, 14, 16, 20.

Firefighting system installed in terminals include

5.7.1 Sprinkler system:

These are installed on the tanks around the perimeter of the tanks at the top, pump house, loading gantries and other identified critical locations. The sprinklers work with temperature sensors and a deluge valve system. If the system senses high temperature, the deluge valve system opens, and the sprinklers release water foam mixture.

5.7.2 Main Firefighting System:

The system utilises foam and water to put out fire rapidly. The system consists of a ring main that is installed around the entire facility with branches running to strategic locations.

5.7.3 Foam Storage Tanks:

Fire resulting from a liquid hydrocarbon can quickly escalate, however with the use of foam, the fire can be easily put off. The foam forms a barrier between the air and the fuel, thereby putting off the fire quickly.

Figure 14: Foam Lines to Tanks

5.7.4 Firewater Monitors

The monitors are connected to the ring main and the foam system. The monitors should be selected and installed such that they can provide appropriate coverage for all the tanks from all angles. The reach of the monitors should be checked against the maximum height and distance of the target tank. Also, the effect of wind on the water/foam jet should be considered in selecting monitors.

Figure 15: Testing Fire Monitors (Water and Foam Mixture)

5.7.5 Fire Hydrant:

The fire hydrants should be installed at strategic locations in the terminal; they are source points for connecting firefighting hose.

Figure 16: Fire Hydrant

5.7.6 Firefighting Truck

In addition to all the main fire monitors and hydrant, a fire truck may as well be provided to provide backup for firefighting most especially locations that monitors and hydrants are not installed.

Figure 17: Fire Fighting Truck

5.7.7 Portable Fire Extinguishers.

Despite the installation of the firefighting system, fire extinguishers should be located in appropriate areas including loading gantries, pump house etc. they provide a quick way of putting off a fire that has not escalated. Dry Powder type extinguishers are the most applicable.

6 References

API 650: Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage

API 2350: Overfill Protection for Storage Tanks in Petroleum Facilities

ASME B31.3: Process Piping

DEP Selection of Materials for Upstream Equipment (Amendments/Supplements to ISO 15156:2015)

Department of Petroleum Resources Depots Guidelines: Procedure Guide for the Construction and Operation of Petroleum Products Depots and Facilities

DEP Vertical Steel Storage Tanks – Selection Design and Construction (Amendments/Supplements to En14015

EN 140155: Specification for the Design and Manufacture of Site Built, Vertical, Cylindrical, Flat-Bottomed, Above Ground, Welded, Steel Tanks for the Storage of Liquids at Ambient Temperature and Above

NFPA 10: Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers,

NFPA 11: Standard for Low, Medium-, and High- Expansion Foam

NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems.

NFPA 16: Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems,

NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, 2010 edition.

NFPA 30: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code