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Architecture for The Modern Retail Fuel Station

The fuel station become an icon in the landscape – not because of its stature, hierarchy, intrigue, beauty or even spatial experience, but merely for the distinct fact that it succeeds in its function: filling up thirsty fuel tanks and hungry stomachs, providing vehicle-services and guiding road users on their journey.

Horizontal Directional Drilling

This article explains the principle of horizontal directional drilling as it relates to pipeline installation. It will also highlight some technical requirements that should be fulfilled for the successful execution of horizontal directional drilling.

Skid Mounted LNG Liquefaction For Flare Gas

commercial interest in implementing solutions for flare gas utilization has significantly improved, with a range of technology applications. One of the most promising options is the conversion of flare gas to LNG through use of mini or small scale LNG liquefaction plants – modular (skid-mounted) LNG liquefaction plants

Process Control Automation in Oil & Gas (Downstream)

Process Control Automation is the latest and innovative value-adding service in Oil & Gas downstream. In the Oil & Gas Industry, it is crucial to regulate process variables to achieve the task of Process automation.

Natural Gas Development in Africa

Twenty-Two African countries have proven gas reserves. Nigeria, Libya, Algeria and Egypt contain 91% of Africa’s gas reserves, and Africa itself contains approximately 10% of the global gas reserves. This gas could help tremendously in addressing the severe power shortage that plagues most of Africa. This is one of the fundamental driving forces behind the LNG development in Africa.


Geomechanics is shown as an ally of high importance when facing the heterogeneous challenge that a hydraulic fracturing represents.

Fuel Gas Booster Skid Systems

When a gas engine or gas turbine requires a pressure above the available pipeline pressure, a fuel gas booster is desired. The fuel gas booster (gas booster) compressor provides gaseous fuel (natural gas, biogas, or similar) to a gas turbine or piston-type engine at high pressure.


A shell and tube heat exchanger is one of the most popular types of exchangers due to its flexibility. In this type, there are two fluids with different temperatures, one of them flow through tubes and another flow-through shell.

Fluidised Bed Reactor Design for Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis has been gaining increasing attention due to its high efficiency and reduced impact on the environment in contrast to the crude oil sector. It creates an opportunity to recover energy from agricultural residues. This article outlines how the design of the fluidised beds for combustion and pyrolysis should be conducted as well as safety measures that should be considered in the design.

Determining Construction Project Progress

How can a project be 90%, 0% and 20% complete in terms of progress, all at the same time? You may think I’ve gone completely mad and yet, I can show you, that all three these figures were simultaneously accurate at the time! Here’s what happened - let’s see if you can work it out?

JBCC Instruction to Accelerate

In this article, we are going to look at the concept of acceleration and what you need to know, to protect your interests as a contractor or as a principal agent. We also ask the fundamental question: Can the principal agent issue an instruction to accelerate work under the JBCC Contract?

Technologies to Decarbonise the Marine Industry

This article reviews various technologies that are currently explored by the marine industry to reduce CO2 emissions. For each option, we will discuss the GHG reduction potential, the feasibility from a technical point of view and the existing demonstrator.

Commercial Gas Metering Systems

This article is expert advice/opinion regarding gas measurement/quality monitoring issues and provides state-of-the-art commercially available solutions for accurate measurement of quality and quantity of gas.


A Heat Exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer. In exchangers, usually, there are no external heat or work interactions. They are used in both cooling and heating purposes.


This study Investigates the possibility that a rainwater harvesting system can provide reliable potable water for a rural household. It looks into system design that does not require external power and is simplistic in operation. And tests whether the addition of a slow sand filter in such a system design is a viable solution to provide potable water for the household.

Design Considerations For Underground RO Treatment

The supply of potable water to underground mining operations poses unique challenges for each mining site. Advances in water treatment technologies make the option of point-of-use water treatment increasingly feasible. Of these technologies, Reverse Osmosis is emerging as the most cost-effective treatment towards potable quality.

Digitalisation How It Effects Leadership In The Workspace

Understand how digitalization effects top management leadership while condidering the different forms of leadership and their unique characteristics

Pipeline Pigging System

Pipeline pigging is the process of using a device referred to as Pig to perform various tasks including cleaning, maintenance, inspection, batching, dimension check on a new or existing pipeline.

Geodesic Domes – Where Architecture and Industrial Bulk Storage meet

A geodesic dome is a site-specific, structurally engineered, above-ground storage tank roof. It is made from an aluminum structure of interlocking panels, extruded struts, gusset plates, batten bars, and hubs that requires no welding

Ethics and Engineering

The work of engineers affects the lives of millions of people and society as a whole. As such, this presents an ethical and moral dimension to the decisions engineers are required to make.

Gas Processing

The treatment of Natural gas is a technical procedure. The purpose of gas treatment is to clean the gas by extracting contaminants, fluids, and hydrocarbons (non-methane). In oil and gas terminology the processed gas is called pipeline friendly gas.

Gas Metering Skid For The Application of Gas Supply System

A gas metering skid is a part of a gas production plant that is pre-assembled on a steel structure, engaged to the measurement of gas products. It can be installed at the onshore or offshore location based on the requirement.

Amine Gas Treatment

Amine gas treating, widely known as amine scrubbing, gas sweetening, and acid gas removal, represents the group of processes where aqueous solutions of various amines are used to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases. The H2S is gaseous acid; therefore, the removal process got the name sweetening. The amine gas treatment is used as a pretreatment of natural gas.

Consulting in Sweatpants

The demand to work remotely, or working-from-home (WFH), has steadily been increasing over the last few years. Remote working on a regular basis has been growing by 173% between 2005 and 2018, and 98% of employees in the United States have expressed their desire to work remotely on a permanent or at least part-time basis.

The Importance of Valves

This article discusses the importance of valve selection, placement and provides recommendations for general practice.

Ventilators - An Overview within the Covid-19 Context

EPCM has developed a low-cost ventilator to address the fight against Covid-19 in poor regions. This article talks all things ventilators.

Designing Your Lifestyle To Fight Corona

In the current Corona crisis we all find ourselves in, people react differently. Some individuals chose to ignore the global crisis, others work on conspiracy theories, some panic and buy all the toilet paper, others choose to put up a fight. This article will help you with some practical guidance to fight Corona.

LPG Terminal Basics

This article looks at all the basics of LPG storage. Including all the multitude of ancillary infrastucture needed in such terminals.

Importance of Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Offshore Facilities

Advances in coating technology can offer significant cost saving and performance advantages if developed, specified, applied and maintained correctly.

Designing Your Business To Fight Corona

This article will help you design a business for the future that needs to be virus proof. In particular, a Corona proof business.

Performance Management For Millennials - Engineers Included!

Why is performance management a ’thing’ in organisations at all? The textbook and international codes of good practice tell us that a responsible company has a way of assessing and rewarding the contributions of its people. In this article we are going to check the assumptions that gave rise to this ‘thing’, why it went wrong and what can be done to get it right, if indeed there is a need for it at all.

The SADC Natural Gas Market

A grand vision of an interconnected gas market has been painted by South African Development Community (SADC) leadership. In order to better understand this vision, high level market research on the gas market in the SADC region has been undertaken, and we assess the current position of SADC, and suggest a roadmap to achieve it.

Plastic to Diesel

Research is being carried out into waste-to-energy processes and refuse derived fuels. Of these processes, pyrolysis is increasingly being used to turn waste plastic into diesel. This article will explore how pyrolysis works and if it can live up to the expectations.

Civil Engineering Works at Tank Farms

Tank farms are exciting places for engineers. Most people think that tank farms, with their storage vessels, pipes and pumps, are the exclusive hunting grounds of mechanical and chemical engineers, while civil engineering is about structures, roads, water and concrete, right?

Gas Distribution System

Any gas distribution system consists of a myriad of various parts, from storing, transferring, controlling flows and pressures and temperatures to measuring volumes sold to end-users. And so much more.

Remote Location Drilling, Dewatering, and Geosteering

Whether remote taiga, barren desert, on high-elevation mountainside, or deep ocean, the most impressive and difficult production projects undertaken in today’s industries are those which take place in remote environments. These projects often require the skills of dozens of teams who draw materials and expertise from around the world.
Floating Power Plants

A Case or Two or Three For Floating Power Plants

There are power supply issues in many parts of the world. Floating power plants (FPP) offer a means to solve these problems, both in the first and third worlds. Placed in a marine environment, they don’t need land. They can be plugged in to local grids and from the point of arrival of the FPP at the site they can provide power within weeks.

Drilling Rigs, Engines, & Fuels

Upstream producers continually adopt the most agile and effective technologies, including dual-fuel and dedicated natural gas engines. Skyrocketing availability of inexpensive natural gas has produced an equally agile fuel source, while modular design allows for simple turnkey LNG fueled drilling rigs that reduce cost and emissions significantly for operators.
NG main

Gas Metering and Regulator Stations

Natural Gas Metering and Regulator stations form a vital link the the Oil and Natural Gas supply chain, providing key services and industry solutions, modular designs, and greater information connectivity.
Pigging Pipelines

Pigging Pipelines — An Overview

Pigging is the foundation of pipeline construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Designed to ensure continual product flow while minimizing capital and operating cost.
Building Information Modeling

BIM in Oil and Gas

Current BIM uses in Oil and Gas profoundly impact project teams, O&G companies, and data analytics as it spurs industry wide developments.
Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic Fracturing Overview

Hydraulic fracturing uses advanced well design and high pressure fluid injection to dramatically increase hydrocarbon (oil and natural gas) well production. One of two technologies responsible for the U.S. Shale Revolution.
horizontal drilling

Horizontal Directional Drilling for Oil and Natural Gas

Horizontal drilling allows operators to safely and more effectively access a reservoir—often several reservoirs. Reliable horizontal drilling has forever changed oil and natural gas extraction. Horizontal drilling is one of two technologies essential to the U.S. Shale Revolution.
Managing Millennials

Managing Millennials

The vast majority of our company are millennials. How do we manage them? Keep them motivated? Get the best out of them? It's not so hard, but it is a completely different way of approaching your team than traditional methods.
Water Bath Heaters

Gas Fired Water Bath Heaters

Gas-fired water bath heaters are a type of heater utilized in a wide variety of settings and industries for process heating. This article takes you through all the basics of this technology.
Pipeline Buoyancy

Pipeline Buoyancy

Pipeline buoyancy is one of the major challenges that must be resolved when a pipeline is to be installed offshore, across a river or swampy terrain. The pipeline must be analyzed for floatation during the design phase of the project. Any sections of a pipeline subjected to buoyancy force experiences bending stress which may result in structural failure of the pipeline, inline connections failure such as flange leakage.
Magnetic Flux Leakage

Inline Inspection with Magnetic Flux Leakage

Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique used to assess materials for corrosion, pitting, and deformations. MFL testing can be applied to pipelines, storage tanks, railways, cables, and other ferromagnetic materials. Inline Inspection (ILI) refers to the use of inspection devices commonly called intelligent pigs.
Moral Case for Fossil Fuels

The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels: Review

Our book review for Moral Case of Fossil Fuels by Alex Epstein. A fantastic read that demonstrates why the continued use of fossil fuels is not only necessary but morally defendable - providing us with cheap, and reliable energy.
The United States Shale Revolution

The United States Shale Revolution

Shortly after the U.S. Shale Revolution kicked off it began to pull the United States from recession with an enormous production of shale oil and natural gas. This revolution transformed the U.S. from an importer of natural gas to a dominant exporter, dramatically reduced emissions, increased electricity generation from natural gas and has exhibited tremendous influence on world politics.
Selecting Employees for the Engineering Environment

Selecting Employees for the Engineering Environment

When engineering firms recruit new graduate employees, they look at the candidates’ academic record, or may opt for giving bursaries to the top performing student and ensure they attract the best talent. Offering high initial salaries to graduates is another frequently employed technique to ensure the top employees can be recruited into the business. This is a problem.
South African Electric and Energy Sources

South Africa's Electricity Generation & Energy Supply by Sources - Infographics

Infographics detailing the makeup of South Africa's Electricity Generation by Source, and South Africa's Energy Supply by Source
Offshore Mooring System

Offshore Moorings Systems Hierarchy

A breakdown of all offshore mooring systems in hierarchical form

Emerging Technologies at EPCM

There has been no major disruption and engineering and constructing firms are still mostly executing projects the way it has been done 20 years ago. As a result, there has not been real efficiency gain with reduced efficiencies reported in some countries. There is, therefore, a major potential in the engineering and construction industry to implement technologies to improve efficiencies.

Onsite Machining

The Miracle Worker of Modern Industry. Emergency and short notice situations are ideally solved by the use of onsite machining - engineers rapidly deploy portable machining tools to mitigate the disastrous impact of these scenarios.
hot tapping

Hot Tapping and Line Stopping - Overview

Few engineering procedures can modify, repair, and improve operating equipment while they remain in service; far less are the number of procedures that are also environmentally friendly, involve less risk, and firmly claim a 60%-80% expense reduction when compared with competing procedures. Nearly a century of widely practised hot tapping and plugging techniques confidently generate these facts.

Fuel Stations Development Process in South Africa

This extract discusses the typical process steps for developing service stations in South Africa.
Multi-Product Pipelines

Multi-Product Pipelines

Multi-Product Pipelines are used to transport different hydrocarbon liquid products in batches in a single pipeline such as diesel, petrol, kerosene and jet fuel. This article looks at the design standards and considerations that are crucial when designing, installing, and operating a multi-product pipeline.

Benefits of Millennials - 7 Reasons Why They Can Make You Millions

By 2020, Millennials will be the majority workforce. Managers HAVE to realise the benefits of Millennials and how they can contribute to project success!
Brulpadda Total's offshore discovery

What does Brulpadda, Total's offshore discovery, mean for SA’s future?

The finding of significant quantities of gas condensate on the Brulpadda prospects, has ramifications for the energy sector and especially the gas economy in South Africa and has everyone including our president talking, but what does the find actually mean and how will it impact our industry.
Cathodic Protection

Cathodic Protection Basics

This article explains the basic operating principles as well as the requirements for a Cathodic Protection system.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - An Overview

An overview of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), everything you need to know about, including History, Treating and Processing, LNG Market Outlook, etc.

Design of Bulk LPG Storage Facilities - Layout and sizing considerations

This article provides detailed information regarding the layout and sizing considerations for the design of bulk LPG storage facilities.

Modularization for hydrocarbon pipelines in Africa

In this article, EPCM will discuss the major items that can be supplied in modular format for hydrocarbon pipelines

That’s not my name!

Remembering a person's name is more important than you think, this article will strive to give you some basic techniques that can be followed to remember the names of people you meet.

Bulk LPG Storage Layout Requirements - SANS 10087-3 compared with NFPA 58

This article looks at comparing the site layout guidelines for bulk LPG storage between the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) 58 and SANS (South African National Standards) 10087 3 codes and standards. The article intent is only to indicate major differences, when designing a system.
Micro-Scale Natural Gas Liquefaction Processes

Natural Gas Liquefaction Processes: Design and Optimisation for Micro-Scale

A detailed research study has been completed on existing work specific to micro-scale (less than 275 tones per day or 5 million GJ per annum) liquefied natural gas (LNG) production facilities. Results were analysed, compared and summarised to serve as initial design conditions for proposed process designs.
Successful Hot Tapping

Hot Tapping – Advice on Successful Pipeline Tapping

In many cases for production lines and plants it is crucial to keep pipelines online and producing, however, it also becomes necessary to reroute, tie in additional lines or do maintenance on pipelines. This is where hot tapping can provide critical and much needed support to keep the product flowing in the line while doing work.
Cathodic Protection Case Study

Cathodic Protection Case Study - Padma Bangladesh

A case study for determining the correct cathodic protection for a pipeline in Bangladesh
Construction Delivery Models

Construction Delivery Models

Construction projects can be executed under a variety of delivery models, including design-build, early contractor involvement and alliance models, amongst others. In order to ensure the success of a construction project, it is vital to choose the most appropriate delivery model. Each delivery model comes with distinct features and the client should consider how the differences align with the project's goals and characteristics.
Building Information Modelling (BIM)

The Drafting Side of Building Information Modelling (BIM)

While there are numerous explanations on how to successfully execute projects within the Building Information Modelling (BIM) environment, the role of the drafting side in these explanations are often lacking. So, this article will highlight some of these challenges on the drafting side of the BIM industry, how to address them, as well as methods and tips to plan, start and successfully execute projects.
Pipeline Current Mapping Survey

Pipeline Current Mapping (PCM) Survey

The PCM has been designed to overcome the shortcomings of the existing techniques CP fault finding techniques and now provides pipeline engineers with an accurate, cost-effective product that can be used in all weather and ground conditions. This article explains more about Pipeline Current Mapping Surveys.

Marine Structured Wall PE Pipelines - KRAH

EPCM has partnered with Krah Pipes to offer turnkey solutions for large PE marine application pipelines (up to 5m) for cooling and desalination intake/outfalls. This article by Krah discuss the various technical matters related to the installation and performance of these type of marine pipelines
Retail Fuel Station Refurbishment

Retail Fuel Station Refurbishment Process

Refurbishing retail fuel stations come with its own set of challenges. This article discusses the process involved and the key challenges faced.
Infrastructure project finance

Infrastructure Project Finance - A Know How Guide

Project finance is as crucial to driving infrastructure projects and ensuring their success than engineering, if not more. A lot of time of EPCM is spent raising finance on our own or client's projects. Learn the basics here of what elements are role players are involved with infrastructure Project Financing.
spm calm buoy system

SPM Calm Buoy System - The Ultimate Guide

A Single Point Mooring (SPM) CALM system is an offshore mooring point used to facilitate tankers loading or discharging various forms of liquid product cargo near onshore storage or production fields. In this guide, we give you a full overview of what this system is all about.
Don't Delegate Like an Engineer

Don't Delegate Like an Engineer

Engineers would rather do it themselves than fix their team member's work. An approach adopted by most in technical fields. Yet, the only way to grow and move forward, as an individual, team and company is to learn to effectively delegate.

Tropical Cyclone Modelling for Design of Coastal Infrastructure

Tropical cyclones (also known as hurricanes or typhoons) are formed over warm waters of the tropical oceans and have the potential to produce intense rain and abnormally high winds. This article outlines the difficulties faced by engineers tasked with designing coastal infrastructure to withstand such events and presents some best practice approaches for undertaking this task.
LNG as Vehicle Fuel

Business Case for LNG as Vehicle Fuel

Although a number of new options exist to fuel vehicles, it will take a long time to replace infrastructure for alternative fuels. Mature countries have started to move their vehicles onto natural gas, electricity, and hydrogen as alternatives to petrol and diesel. In this article, we looked at the option of fueling vehicles with Liquid Natural Gas (LNG)
Energy Outlook – Oil and Gas (DNV Report Notes)

Energy Outlook – Oil and Gas (DNV Report Notes)

In efforts to make the world’s energy system cleaner and more efficient, there is a focus on transitioning to a lower-carbon energy mix. DNV’s excellent Energy Transition Outlook (ETO) Report provides an outlook and forecast on the world’s energy mix to 2050. This summary focusses on the oil and gas sector report.

HDPE Retail Fuel Tanks

Driven by innovation and commitment to the industry, a lot of effort has gone into optimizing the retail fuel station market and to provide better value to existing and new clients. One area of specific improvement is material selection for underground fuel tanks.
Procurement From China

Procurement From China

This article explains the procurement process when procuring from China and also explain how to control quality when procuring from them. Although China has been trading with the whole world for almost 40 years now, a number of companies, especially from developing countries, are still very worried about the perceived quality they get from China. This needs to change.
EPC Project Execution

EPC Project Execution

With the African market becoming more mature and understanding the project execution models better, there has been a big rise in EPC (Engineering, procurement and construction) projects being executed in Africa. Although EPC project have been executed all over the world, it’s a very new model for Africa and South Africa and project houses do not really understand how to execute the projects using an EPC execution model.
Motivation In An Engineering Project Environment

Motivation In An Engineering Project Environment

This article focus on getting the most out of the people that work for you in the engineering project environment by motivating them correctly.
Don't Present Like An Engineer

Don't Present Like An Engineer

Many really solid projects or products get lost in translation between engineers trying to present and sell their product and the audience they want to sell to. This article will thus attempt to give engineers some simple rules for technical presentations that they should follow to help them get their message across to the rest of the world.
Infrastructure Project Development: 

Infrastructure Project Development 101

Having worked with a number of project developers as well as developing projects in Africa and internationally, the following project development model was developed. By following the steps outlined below, project developers can improve their chances of closing projects, spend less money and time in developing the projects and improve the perception of project development.

EPCM and EPC Contracting Strategies

In the project environment, two major execution models are used; EPCM (Engineering, procurement and construction management) and EPC (Engineering, procurement, and construction). Although the outcome of the project should be very similar, the two models have distinct differences. It's important to understand when to select the correct model.

Industrial Uses of Drones

From rapid surveillance deployment to scanning an unreachable and/or dangerous area of interest, drones are proving to be extremely beneficial in places where man cannot reach or is unable to perform in a timely and efficient manner.
The infographic introduced by EPCM fractional distillation of crude oil

fractional distillation of crude oil

Fractional distillation of crude oil - an graphical interpretation
Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Value Chain

Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Value Chain - The Basics

Natural gas will be the world's faster growing major energy source through the year 2040. This energy source carries tremendous benefits for the consumers and the environment. It is versatile, clean burning, and abundant.
Concentrated Solar Power

An In-Depth Discussion on Concentrated Solar Power

Concentrated solar power (CSP) has long been proposed as a source for energy generation applications. The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of relevant theory regarding main aspects of concentrated solar powered energy production
Greencape Biogas Report:

Greencape Biogas Report - EPCM Summary Notes

EPCM's summary notes on the Greencape Western Cape BioGas Report

Direct DME Synthesis From Natural Gas

Dimethyl ether (DME) has been identified as an attractive fuel alternative and has seen an exponential increase in demand in the Asia Pacific. Dimethyl ether (DME) is a non-petroleum based transportation fuel, to act as a clean replacement for diesel fuel. Forecasts predict that the DME market will increase rapidly in the rest of the world.

Anaerobic Digester Design in South Africa

Energy derived from biogas is used in the form of fuel, heat, and electricity. Biogas is a renewable source of energy derived from biodegradable substrates such as agricultural wastes, animal wastes, domestic wastes, crops and industrial waste. It is produced by anaerobic digestion, which is a biochemical process in the absence of oxygen. The main product of biogas is methane and carbon dioxide.

Air Separation of Cryogenic Gases

An Air Separation Unit (ASU), is a type of technology that separates air into its main constituents. The most abundant components are Nitrogen, followed by oxygen and then argon, as well as other inert gases in small amounts.
Understanding Natural Gas and LNG

Understanding Natural Gas and LNG Options Handbook – Summary

The future of natural gas and liquid natural gas looks promising in Africa: Both as a natural gas resource and a potential import market. We summarise the key points here for 'Understanding Natural Gas and LNG Option Handbook' which has a specific focus on LNG for Africa

LNG as Marine Bunkering Fuel

The marine indsustry is increasingly looking at Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a cost effective alternative marine bunkering fuel in order to reduce emissions.

Where Natural Gas is Found and How it is Obtained

A high level look at how natural gas is formed and the typical methods use to extract this natural resource

Continuous Carbon Capture Process using Stirling Coolers

This article documents the current hypothesis for developing and testing a continuous Carbon Dioxide capture system using Stirling Coolers as the driving force.

Process Technologies for Helium Recovery from Natural Gas: A Review

This article reviews conventional processes used for recovery of helium from natural gas and examines the potential of emerging technologies for more efficient helium production processes, with main focus on Southern Africa’s new helium rich gas reserves.

Considerations for Seismic Analysis of Oil, Gas and Mineral Jetties

Exploring the aspects of seismic analysis of jetties used in the import/export of oil, gas, petroleum and other minerals in seismic active regions.
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API 650 Tank Fabrication

API 650 Tank Fabrication course presentation
Seawater Intake & Outfall Systems

Seawater Intake & Brine Outfall Systems

Systems, parts, and design considerations needed in the designing of large scale seawater intake & brine outfall systems for desalination plants or power station cooling water.
SPM image

Choosing Between SPM CALM and CBM Mooring

Discussed in this report are the characteristics of and comparisons between Single Point Mooring (SPM) systems and Conventional Buoy Mooring (CBM) systems, also referred to as Multi-Buoy Moorings (MBM).

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