We write about Engineering, Infrastructure, Technology, and Work Culture


This article provides an overview of Water Electrolysis technologies for Green Hydrogen production. Considering diverse Hydrogen markets and the evolving technological landscape, this article recommends fourteen evaluation criteria for electrolyser technology selection. The significance of each criterion is explained.


A quarter of all anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide emissions emanate from combustion processes in the energy and industrial sectors. Capturing Carbon Dioxide directly from Flue gases will mitigate emissions from existing power plants and industrial units. This article reviews current Flue gas Carbon Dioxide capture technologies that are commercially available.

Analyzing Boiler Energy Consumption, Efficiency Enhancements, and Emissions Control

Boilers are widely used in many industries and for various commercial purposes for producing hot water and steam. Boilers consume a large volume of the world's fossil fuel production, and that's why their efficiency is very important. The article will highlight techniques for optimizing boilers' energy requirements and emission control approaches to make them environmentally more clean.

Clean Energy Finance Basics

Clean energy finance is any structured financial activity created to ensure a low-carbon footprint and a better environmental outcome. This article focuses on financing market-ready sectors, such as renewables and efficiency.

Decarbonisation of Gas in South America

South America produces but also imports large amounts of natural gas, and injecting renewable hydrogen into the natural gas systems could help decarbonise the sector.

Enhanced Membrane Bioreactors

Membrane bioreactors are suspended-growth activated sludge treatment processes in which bacteria are grown in a suspension of culture medium/wastewater/food and oxygen.

Ethanol and Higher Alcohols as Renewable Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines

Climate change, global warming, fossil fuel price fluctuation and availability are considered among the primary challenges globally. Depending on petroleum-based energy resources is the main issue. That's why interest in bio/renewable fuel is growing significantly. This article has thoroughly reviewed the potential and challenges of ethanol and higher alcohol in internal combustion engines for energy purposes.

EV Charging Stations

As the number of electric vehicles on the road keeps rising, so does the need for reliable and safe infrastructure to charge them.

Integrating Biogas and Biomethane Into Circular Economy

The world has high ambitions regarding renewable energy from plants and animals. Biomass is converted to energy through various processes, including direct combustion, thermochemical and biological conversion.


This article explores the potential for Liquid and Gaseous Biofuels to become mainstream fuels in the emerging low-Carbon sustainable energy future. It summarizes the manufacturing technologies and trends for major Biofuels and provides an overview of the current global Biofuels markets.

Renewable Energy in Small Island States

Islands lack land, often need a more secure energy supply, and have good preconditions to integrate variable renewables.


Safety and hazard management is crucial for process industries to ensure business and operational reliability. The large diversity of chemical operations, processing conditions, and equipment makes hazard identification and management challenging work. This article will provide a compressive guide on safety and hazard management in different process industries to make a well-informed decision for operators and engineers about which approach might be most appropriate to choose as per the process nature.

Sub-sea CT Scanning to Assess Pipeline Corrosion

The field-tested CT Scan is an innovative alternative technique being successfully used by operators to non-intrusively check their pipelines located in ultra-deepwater subsea.


Dimethyl ether (DME) is an essential industrial product and serves as a viable replacement for petroleum diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).


Due to the increase in demand and increased rates for power and energy resources, engineers are trying different methods to produce fuel from hydrocarbons. Though most of the efforts are emphasized on biofuel, a small portion of efforts are also focused on producing fuel from waste plastics.

Virtual Pipelines

We discuss the process of supplying natural gas to a consumer who is neither connected directly to the main pipeline nor is able to acquire gas supplies through a local distribution company.

Trends in O&G Bioremediation

Bioremediation is the practice of converting harmful substances to environmentally safe products by the action of microorganisms.

Tank and Vessel Cleaning

Tanks and vessels have many uses within the oil and gas universe, including storage, decanting, product isolation for analysis, and chemical reaction systems. There are methods for cleaning residues and ensuring continued operation in a safe and efficient manner.

Saltwater Disposal Facilities

In the upstream O&G sector, saline wastewater is generated during the drilling, completion, and production of conventional and non-conventional gas and oil wells. There are methods for managing the produced water, typically including recycling/reuse and disposal into refurbished wells.

Renewable and Green Energy: Major Sources and Challenges

The importance of renewable and green energy sources is growing over fossil fuels because of fewer environmental problems and increasing our focus on sustainable solutions. This article will discuss the significance and challenges associated with prominent renewable energy source types.

Innovations in Desalination Process: Efforts in making the Desalination Process Efficient and Sustainable

The importance of the desalination process is increasing with the rising demand for clean water globally. This process still needs to have energy efficient and sustainable. This article has thoroughly discussed the recent innovations in the desalination process and future prospects.

Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR)

This article is intended for anybody in charge of handling oil and gas products. LDAR is industrial standard practice, the knowledge of which is very important for the professionals. This article will be helpful for individuals who respond to leakages in oil and gas industry.


Green Ammonia is an emerging Carbon-free energy source and Hydrogen carrier, in addition to its importance as a fertiliser input. After outlining the features of conventional and Green Ammonia technologies, this article focuses on Green Ammonia Project development aspects including power supply, equipment, CAPEX and OPEX.

Decarbonizing strategies for the Upstream Oil and Natural Gas industry

Crude Oil and Natural Gas will continue to play an important role in the global energy scenario, for the next few decades. However, Operating Companies must decarbonize their operations to meet regulatory and stakeholder expectations. This article discusses strategies for decarbonization in the Upstream Exploration and Production sectors.


Amidst global warming and greenhouse gas emissions, carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery, referred to as CO2-EOR, has become the potential method to enhance recovery from mature oilfields

What to do if your oil tank is leaking

This document is intended for anybody in charge of handling oil and gas products that might leak and pollute the environment. It could also be helpful for individuals who respond to leaks or are in charge of handling or storing waste material spilt as a result of a leak. It includes guidance about over and underground oil and gas tanks.


Future economic development involving worldwide computer networks and electric vehicles will require exponentially higher supplies of uninterrupted electrical power from non-fossil fuels. Hydrogen is seen as an important zero-Carbon fuel that will mitigate climate risk. This article summarizes key aspects of current Hydrogen Production technologies and relative economics of Blue and Green Hydrogen pathways.

Piping and Pipeline Bends

The article covers bends used in the oil and gas industry. The bends described in the article are for steel piping and pipelines. The article will cover bend radius, bend specifications etc.

ASME B31.4 Pipeline Wall Thickness Calculation

This article will focus on calculating pipelines wall thickness and selecting appropriate thickness with a focus on pipelines made of carbon steel materials e.g. API 5L. In addition to performing the wall thickness calculation, inputs to the wall thickness calculation formula will be explained

Volatile Energy Markets

This article provides vital information energy buyers need to participate in the volatile energy markets, trade cost-effectively, and reduce commodity costs. Industry expertise and experienced energy professionals present strategies and insider suggestions to achieve best practices in energy procurement.

Reuse and Recycling of Polymers/Plastics and Eco-Friendly Alternatives

Plastic or polymer waste has become a serious problem on land and in the ocean in the last two decades.

Decentralised CHP

Combined Heat and Power systems (CHP) are the core of decentralised energy systems due to their operative flexibility and greater efficiency.

Role of Simulators in the Process Industry: An Overview and Simulation Case Study of a Chemical Process Plant

Process simulation is used to develop, design, analyze, and optimize technical processes such as chemical processes, complex manufacturing operations, environmental systems, biological processes, power stations, and similar technical functions.

Innovation in the Chemical Process Industries: A Review

Traditional chemical process sectors have lagged behind others in innovation, such as transportation, aircraft, information technology, etc. The handling of highly complicated heterogeneous multiscale, multiphase, and reactive mixtures in such industrial facilities is the primary cause.

Separators: Types and Designing Considerations

The separator is the pressure vessel that separates the liquid and gaseous constituents.


Large petroleum pipe systems have been subject to leak sealing since 1922, normally a non-destructive on-site repair method.

Hot Tapping in Oil Refineries: Corrosion and Material Concerns

Various rules, guidelines and best practices for hot tapping execution in oil refineries, especially during shutdowns.

Evaporator: Principal, Types and Design Considerations

Any process that has to concentrate (purify) a stream by eliminating water or another solvent utilises evaporation.

Absorption Column: Types and Designing Considerations

In absorption (also known as gas scrubbing, gas absorption, or gas washing), one or more species transfer from the gas phase to a liquid solvent.

Critical Requirements in executing a Hot Tap in Hydrocarbon Industry

Various rules, guidelines and best practices for hot tapping execution in the hydrocarbon industry

Waste Incineration Basics

This article aims to give a general overview of waste incineration, focusing on non-hazardous waste. Typical components of fixed hearth incinerators will be discussed.

The Basics of Steam

Steam is a common means of transporting thermal energy. It's perfect for use as a heat transfer medium in potentially dangerous or explosive environments. This article discusses how steam is safely produced and controlled.


LNG spot market is the daily market – a market where LNG is bought and sold on ‘right now’ basis providing the price of LNG on a specific day.

Chilled and Hot Water Pumping Systems

This article focuses on both state-of-the-art and traditional technologies for energy engineers and HVAC designers to solve supply and pumping issues with chilled and hot water.

What Is The Future of LPG?

LPG has numerous benefits such as easy accessibility, non-toxic, portability, and cost efficiency, on account of which it is replacing coal and is expected to witness high growth in future.

Stages of an LPG Terminal Project – Focus on Conceptual Design and Feasibility Studies

This article aims to explain various stages of an LPG project focusing on the Conceptual design and feasibility studies. The major focus of this article is on medium and bulk storage facilities.

Smart Energy Contracts & Asset Tokenisation

This article describes what it means to tokenise an asset on a blockchain, how smart energy contracts are accomplished, and why blockchain has the potential to disrupt the clean energy industry.

Lessons Learned During Use of Hot Taps For In-Service Natural Gas Pipeline Connections

Various lessons and best practises for in-service hot tapping connections

Oil Spill Emergency Response

Advanced response mechanisms help us deal with oil spills and mitigate their impacts on human health and the environment.

Integrating Solar into Energy Efficiency Projects

Solar energy could alleviate the financial burdens of energy efficiency projects, but targeted policies will be necessary for solar to expand into industrial facilities and lower-income communities.

Important Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering

A process that does not include any chemical reaction is known as a unit operation. Unit operations deal with only physical changes in the substances involved in the process. They are equipment that produces physical changes in materials.

Hydrocarbon management during tank cleaning in the oil and gas industry

Cleaning contemporary tanks, containers, and pits that store fuel buildups is an inescapable cycle that businesses must handle. The main reason for cleaning is to remove the buildups caused by the heavier components in oil settling after some time.

The Floating Solar Market

The global floating solar demand is expected to keep growing rapidly. Increasing focus on clean energy and water conservation, coupled with competition for land use, will boost the market growth during the next decade.

Floating Solar Basics

Typically solar panels are mounted on land in solar farms or parks, or buildings. But they don’t have to be – they can float on water. That makes them useful in areas where land is at a premium but water bodies are numerous, such as cities, which generally have many artificial bodies of water, ranging from dams to tanks and ponds at wastewater treatment works.

Distillation Column: Types and Designing Consideration

A distillation column is a basic requirement for a liquid mixture to separate into constituent components, or fractions, depending on volatility tendencies. Large-scale industrial distillation and small-scale laboratory distillations both require some distillation columns.

Decarbonisation Strategies for Industrials

Decarbonizing the industrial sector is critical for achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. In this article, we research the opportunities and challenges of industrial innovation and offer practical steps that policymakers and industrial leaders can take to accelerate action.

Data Centers Explained

What is a Data Center?, History, Key Components, Benefits, Tiers, & Trends

Chemical Reactors: Types and Operations

A chemical reactor is a closed container where a chemical reaction is carried out. Process designers have to make sure that the reaction progresses as efficiently as possible towards the intended product, resulting in the best yield while needing the least money to buy and operate.

South Africa’s new gold rush

A general introduction to the fascinating world of data centres in the fast-growing African market – where South Africa is the dominant player – and the enormous promise that market holds

COP26: What Did It Mean for the Oil & Gas Industry?

The Glasgow Climate Change Conference hosted launch events for many high-level declarations and initiatives, including methane abatement, the U.S.-China Joint Declaration on Enhancing Climate Action, and the Beyond Oil and Gas Alliance launch.

Data Centers Explained (Part 2)

A data center is a facility consisting of computer networks, storage systems and computer infrastructure for businesses and other organizations that use to organize, process, store and distribute large amounts of data.

Pig Traps

The major focus of the article is the technical requirement for the successful design and construction of pig traps. The article's key focus areas include the length of pig traps, length of minor and major barrel, the type of reducer, nozzle orientation and locations, supports requirements, etc.

LNG Business in Asian Subcontinent (South Asia)

In South Asia, particularly in the Asian subcontinent, natural gas / LNG has a definite role to play in terms of replacing the declining domestic gas production to support economic growth

Drag Reducing Agents

Drag-reducing agents (DRA), or drag-reducing polymers (DRPs), are additives in pipelines that reduce turbulence in a pipe. The primary purpose of using traditional friction reducers in stimulation treatments is to overcome the tubular drag while pumping at high flow rates.

Drag Reducing Agents for Pipelines/Conduits

Drag reducers, also referred to as drag reducing agents (DRA) or flow improvers, are materials that minimise frictional pressure drop in a pipeline or conduit during fluid flow. The resistance experienced by flowing fluid in contact with the pipe wall causes frictional pressure decrease or drag.

Criteria for selection of cleaning chemicals in oil refineries

If storage tanks, processing units, production lines, and heat exchangers need to be drained, cleaning processes might take several weeks. The technology used and the cleaning technique used will be determined by the machinery to be cleaned.

Chemical Cleaning of Oil Refinery Heat Exchangers

Efficient heat exchangers are essential for the successful running of oil refineries and petrochemical plants. However, fouling can build upon both the tube and shell sides of the heat exchangers over time.

A Business Case for State-of-the-Art Crude Refinery

Today’s successful refinery projects are based on integration and enhancement of business processes, practices and technical developments across the entire HCVC (Hydrocarbon Value Chain) – Upstream, Midstream and Downstream.

Wind & Solar in Latam and the Caribbean

While slower than other developing regions, Latin America & the Caribbean’s energy transition is underway, with unconventional renewables - namely solar and wind - growing their share in countries’ energy mixes. Still, moving away from fossil fuels is proving difficult for a region that suffers from political instability, underinvestment, and the effects of climate change.

Thermal Energy Storage

As the global energy demand has skyrocketed, so has the concern about global climate and sustainability goals. Thermal energy storage can help integrate high shares of renewable energy in power generation, industry and buildings.

The World’s Largest Solar Power Plants

Solar is one of the fastest-growing energy sources, and with countries racing to avow the hype, bigger facilities join the market. Here we portray the biggest solar power plants in the world.

State of the art tank bottom clean-up processes in the oil and gas industry

The purpose of this article is to examine the most state of the art tank bottom cleaning techniques currently on the global market and to determine the best effective, safest, cost-effective, and ecologically friendly clean-up procedure.

The Largest of its Kind Ever: South-North Water Transfer Project in China

The South to North Water Transfer Project is the largest inter-basin water transfer venture in the world, diverting water from the Yangtze River in southern China to northern China.

Redefining plant maintenance- reducing shutdown times in the petroleum industry

A shutdown is an expensive predetermined phase in a refinery in the oil and gas sector. During this period, many operations are shut down because facilities are being examined and updated.

Industrial LPG Supplies: Skid Mounted Synthetic Gas Supplies for Optimized Wobbe Index

Skid-mounted SNG Supply Systems – also known as Propane-Air or LPG-Air – can supply WI optimized SNG at remote locations and in the urban metropolis and industrial zones.

Skid Mounted Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Systems

Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT). Both ACT and LACT systems are a very important part of the oil supply chain as they enable parties to monitor and determine the quality and quantity of flowing product from one party to the other over some time

Tank Gauging Systems: Crude, Petroleum Products and LNG Applications

Tank gauging plays an important role in the smooth functioning of the Petroleum Supply Chain. Some gaseous petroleum products like LNG and LPG (also measured by tank gauging while in the liquid phase.

Pressure testing of refinery pipelines and tanks

This article discusses several leak testing methods in refineries, the planning process, the test’s preparation, the pressure testing's execution, documentation, and acceptance of the test standards.

Potable Water Distribution System

This article presents a general overview of a water treatment and distribution system. The system described comprises source well pumps, settling tanks, filter charging pumps, etc.

Line 3 Pipeline Replacement Project

The Line 3 pipeline replacement project will enable crude oil from Western Canada to be reliably transported to refinery markets in the U.S. It will reduce apportionment, increase overall reliability, and generate thousands of jobs — not exempt from environmental and cultural risks.

International Standard Safety Practices for Pressure Testing

Pressure testing is a common industrial procedure carried out in all process industries. It is a procedure conducted to ensure that piping and vessel systems can safely operate at the design parameters

History and Long-Term Fate of the Great Man-Made River in Libya

Decades ago, the search for the new oilfields in the deserts of southern Libya led to the discovery of significant oil reserves and vast quantities of freshwater trapped in the underlying strata. A titanic work involved sinking thousands of wells below the desert sands and mounting a massive water pipeline network.

Carbon Capture & Storage Facilities

Carbon capture and storage facilities are considered key contributors to emissions reduction, with the world's large-scale CCS plants directly capturing approximately 40 million tonnes per annum of carbon dioxide (CO2).

An Overview of Jubail II Industrial Complex

Jubail-II’s 83 km2 of industrial development started in 2005 in Saudi Arabia, and by the time, it was considered to be the world’s largest civil engineering project. Let’s recap its history and main features.

Africa Oil and Gas Review 2020

This review contains some of the highlights from the many Africa's Oil & Gas Review 2020 published by consultancy firms and research groups. It continues to build on annual insights into the African O&G sector. Still, it expands the focus to include the unprecedented disruption caused by the COVID-19 global pandemic and the biggest global theme for this decade – climate change.

5 major mistakes to avoid while chemical cleaning oil tanks

A variety of dangerous situations can arise during the chemical cleaning of oil tanks. This article discusses possible dangers which might take place

An Overview of the Oil & Gas Industry in Argentina

Argentina is South America’s largest natural gas producer and a noteworthy producer of oil too. In recent years, unconventional resources that are part of the Vaca Muerta formation in north Patagonia – one of the largest such deposits worldwide – have arisen oil majors' interest.

Will the US finally get a Unified Electric Grid?

Power lines are a dominant piece of the American landscape. However, a single, vast electric grid, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from Mexico to Canada, is still a decades-old dream.

Importance of Pigging Execution Planning for Gas Pipelines

This article is focused on pigging execution planning for gas pipelines and the requirements of pigging.

Understanding intrinsic safety

Intrinsic safety is a type of protection that restricts electrical energy within the apparatus and interconnecting wiring exposed to potentially explosive atmospheres to a level below which cannot cause ignition by either sparking or heating effects.

Transparency in Metal Supply Chains

This article proffers a critical review of the current evidence aiming to understand the impact and effectiveness of transparency and accountability activities in the metals value chain.

The Solar-Bitcoin/Blockchain Convergence

Cryptocurrencies — and blockchain in general — are exploding into the mainstream, and that’s a good thing. But Bitcoin's increasing energy consumption has triggered a passionate debate about the sustainability of the sector.

State and Future of Renewables in the U.S.

A time when the United States runs primarily on solar and wind-powered electricity - it would require a couple of scientific breakthroughs and technological leaps, as well as an unprecedented clean energy policy.

Skid Mounted LNG Regasification Units – Presenting Viable Solutions for Energy Needs of Remote Areas

This article focuses on providing energy related utilities for sustaining life and business at remote locations – away from the energy grid. This includes SSLNG stand-alone systems meeting

Skid Mounted LNG Regasification Units – Presenting Viable Solutions for Utility Supplies to High Rise Buildings

This article focuses on providing energy (gas and electricity) related utilities for the operational and occupational needs of a residential/commercial tall building

Modern Methods of Gas and Condensate Recovery during Pigging Operation

It is estimated that just from methane emissions, 21,400 Mcf of gas can be recovered annually lost during pigging operations. Learn more about that here.

Pipeline Piping Material Selection Basis

The article presents material selection for pipeline and piping systems. The general focus of the article is material selection for systems transporting oil and gas products.

Centrifugal Pumps Emphasis on Pump Calculations

This article is aimed at presenting an overview of centrifugal pumps with emphasis on pump sizing calculation. A brief overview of other types of pumps is also discussed.

Modern Hydrostatic Testing Methods in Refinery Equipment 

Pressure testing is critical for safe and efficient industrial products manufacture, refinement, storage, and transportation. Inappropriate practices put a company's production and financial soundness in danger

Controlling Speed of Pig during Gas Pipeline Cleaning

The speed of a pig during pipeline cleaning is an important factor that needs to be controlled and optimized for an efficient operation.

Skid Mounted Support Equipment – Hydrostatic Testing and Air Supply Systems

Most hydrostatic testing for pressure vessels is carried out in workshops/labs where skid-mounted units are not required. Skid-mounted equipment is mostly needed at plant sites or along transport pipelines during construction or maintenance works.

Auger and Mud Rotary Drilling in Geotechnical Investigations

This article explores the differences between auger drilling and mud rotary drilling and the benefits choosing one method over the other in a geotechnical investigation.

Keystone Pipeline

The Keystone Pipeline is a major crude oil pipeline project owned by Canada’s TC Energy Corporation (formerly TransCanada) that links Canada’s Athabasca Oil Sands deposits in Hardisty, Alberta, with Patoka, Illinois, in America’s southwest.

How Industrial IoT Can Boost Energy Efficiency

The current era of IoT brings a new insurgency in the capabilities of end nodes that are interconnected through the internet. Ultimately, IoT is an omnipotent tool to maximise energy efficiency in industrial environments.

The African Petroleum Legislation Atlas

The current era of digitalisation brings a new opportunity in the capabilities of institutions that share common goals and are interconnected through the Internet. An African petroleum legislation atlas would be a helpful tool to maximize cooperation across the continent.

How does a Wellhead Control Panel (WHCP) work?

The wellhead is the top part of the well leading down to the reservoir. Oil from the reservoir comes out through the Well hole with casing. Read of this works.

The Big Five African Pipelines

Africa, a land full of opportunity and rich with natural resources. We take a closer look at five big pipelines bringing crude oil from the heart of Africa to the rest of the world.

Tailings and Heap Leach Management in Practice

The manipulation of materials and wastes in modern mining has become a severe problem to the extent of leading to the adoption of state-of-the-art standards and procedures. Let’s discuss some of these and see what lessons can be learnt from recent events.

Small Scale LNG

This article explores what small-scale LNG (SSLNG) is, what it is typically used for and the technology options available for these applications compared to conventional LNG facilities.

Progress in Renewable Hydrogen

Green hydrogen is a plausible enabler for transforming the world's energy, industrial and transport sectors and a means for decarbonising energy-intensive industries. As the market grows, so should our focus on ensuring that this fuel is produced using the lowest environmental impact.

Introduction to Storage Tanks

This article aim is to present a general overview of petroleum products storage tanks. Only cylindrical vertical tanks are covered in this article.

Introduction to Sewage and Effluent Network

This article aims to present a general overview of a packaged sewage treatment process and sewage transportation network.

Green Hydrogen and its future

Green hydrogen is the extraction of hydrogen from water through electrolysis using renewable energy. This is the cleanest and most effective way of producing hydrogen from substances.

Fracking and the Environment

As the development and worldwide use of well stimulation techniques have skyrocketed, so has the concern about public health, safety, and protection of natural resources.

Environmental Mitigation of O&G Projects

Although oil & gas exploration, development, and production activities can affect surrounding environments, there is an opportunity to manage and mitigate potential impacts by applying the mitigation measures (avoid, minimise, restore, and offset) while also identifying opportunities for conservation of the natural environment.

Wireless sensor networks for SCADA Applications

This article explores wireless sensor networks for SCADA applications in the utility sector, especially pipelines.

Site Access Challenges in Drilling Projects

This article describes the challenges faced when exploring the subsurface in difficult areas to access and the solutions that come with the drilling technology that currently exists.

Understanding Rig Performance – A Function of Drilling Rig Time Spent

Modern-day drilling rigs are operational in various types and applications. All with various aspects affecting their performance

Industrial IoT and SCADA Integration

New technologies such as Industrial IoT can undertake the functions of SCADA systems and do much more. This article explores the integration of industrial IOT with the SCADA system.

Improving Well Productivity by Using RC and DTH Rigs

This article looks at how to improve drilling with Reverse Circulation Drilling Rigs (RC) and Down-the-Hole Drilling Rigs (DTH).

How safe is Industrial IoT for SCADA?

Using IoT with the large number of devices connected using an open network provides new attack surfaces to attackers and makes them vulnerable to cyber threats

Anti-Surge Compressor system: A must needed safety precaution in Oil & Gas Rigs

Compressors are one of the most crucial pieces of equipment on oil and gas rigs. The compressors are used to keep the fluid flow constant at the desired pressure. Any compressor failure may cost the plant millions of dollars

Water Conservation and Demand Management in Mining

There has been a massive shift in the environmental and sustainability awareness in the mining industry, which makes water conservation and demand management in the best interests of the mine, over and above the legislative requirements.

The Global Small-Scale LNG Market

Although the small-scale liquified natural gas (SSLNG) market is still incipient, it may be the new revolution in the gas sector, mainly driven by increasing power and fuel demand and new regulations.

Quality Assurance in Electromechanical Systems

The issue of quality applies to all types of businesses and industries — electromechanical systems included. Quality assurance is crucial if we think about achieving an optimal useful life and increasing profitability within them.

Multi Phase Flow Meters

MPFMs measure complex fluid mixtures are coming out of a well that is yet unprocessed.

Introduction to Pressure Vessel Focus on Two phase Separators

Pressure Vessels are prominent equipment in a hydrocarbon processing facility. You would find them in a gas processing facility, gas compression facility, crude processing facility, and facilities where gas is used as fuel. This article is developed to give an overview of two-phase separators

Enhanced Oil Recovery in Shale

Enhanced oil recovery for tight shale reservoirs can redefine what it means to be a shale producer. This is the crucial process looming over the future of the unconventional sector.

Drilling Data Applied to Site Hazard Assessment

This article is intended to describe the current state of drilling applied to geotechnical site hazard assessment.

Biological Treatment of Oil Sludge

Oil sludge cleaning is a mandatory prerequisite for clean and uninterrupted product supply. If not cleaned at regular intervals, this oil sludge will reduce the storage capacity of tanks, cause blockages in pipes, and accelerated corrosion

Biogas and Biomethane Circular Economy

The world has high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy. This article focuses on biogas and biomethane, with the aim to increase the knowledge about their techno-economic preconditions.

Benefits and Applications of Sonic Drilling

This article is intended to describe sonic drilling and its applications across different industries, including infrastructure, mining, environmental and exploration.

A Review of Process Technologies for Hydrogen Production

This article aims to provide an overview of current and emerging hydrogen production technologies, which serve as a critical link in the hydrogen supply chain.

The Future of Shopping Centres Infrastructure Development

This article aims to examine the influence of tenant and user types on small retail/lifestyle centre development in towns.

The East African Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP)

In 2006, Lake Albert sparked hopes in Uganda when 6.5 billion barrels of oil were discovered in the Albertine Graben, the basin of Lake Albert. The East African Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP) looks to transport that oil all the wat to Tanzania and the world.

Social Responsibility in Extractive Industries

There is a variety of responsibilities assigned to extractive companies by investors, the host community, law enforcement and other stakeholders. Let’s discuss them from a social sustainability perspective.

Reuse and Recycling of Produced Water – Obstacles and Opportunities

Produced water is the largest amount of waste product generated during oil and natural gas exploration and production. The customary practice to dispose of the water is becoming more challenging. Obstacles and opportunities for produced water reuse are presented.

Renewables and Microgrids

Innovation will boost the transition towards net-zero microgrids by gradually raising the penetration of renewable sources. Let’s see how.

Pipeline Crossing Analysis – Focus on Road Crossing Design

Pipelines design and construction entails series of technical activities that must be adequately planned, including executing pipeline road and railroad crossings. This article will focus on pipeline crossings (roads and railroads).

Natural Gas in the Caribbean

Natural gas can provide a feasible alternative to curtail fuel oil dependency in the Caribbean. Advances in the global natural gas markets are creating an opportunity to bring it to the region.

Isotopes as a Tool for Petroleum Exploration

As global oil exploration targets progressively deeper and older rocks, data from hydrocarbon-bearing strata is increasing attention. This review article aims to examine the evolution of applied geochemical techniques with specific emphasis on isotopes' utilisation.

Global GHG Emissions

Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions is becoming a higher priority. Here is where most emissions come from—and how long it might take to cut them.

EV Emissions: A Life-Cycle Approach

The electric car is not zero-emission: you have to build it, and you have to produce and transport the electricity for recharging. But then, how better is it compared to the traditional fossil-fuelled vehicle?

Model Predictive Control and the Future of Process Control

This article discusses how model predictive control can resolve a decline in capital productivity faced by chemical process industries. Common control strategies are reviewed, and the need for dynamic process optimisation is discussed. An outline of the model predictive control strategy and implementation strategy is presented.

Industrial Pumps Overview

A thorough overview and introduction to all types and purposes of industrial pumps


Pipe wall thickness design is a crucial part of pipeline design – for performance, safety and commercial factors. This article covers onshore pipeline wall thickness calculation – based on the ASME B31.8 standard.

Renewables Scaleup and its Impact on Global Mining

This article aims to assess the impact of the energy transition on minerals availability and to answer the question of whether these could become critical to the power and the transport sectors due to the high metal content of low-carbon technologies compared to conventional technologies.

Petroleum Storage Terminal Basics

This article is developed to give a general overview of a typical petroleum storage terminal or depot. It will cover some of the technical requirements to be fulfilled in designing and operating a storage terminal.


Fire suppression systems field contains many different engineered categories with different ideologies. They are all gathered to build a system to extinguish fires through various types of applications and substances

Big Data in the Oil & Gas Industry

Energy companies necessitate the embracement of advanced digital technologies to improve operational efficiency. Let’s explore the importance of Data Analytics for the oil and gas industry: this article utilises evidence associated with recent Big Data deployments in oil and gas to demonstrate its vast potential.

Reboot and Re-Visualize: Architectural Design Principles for a post-Covid-19 office workplace

In an environment where COVID-19 does not differentiate between borders, ethnicities, disability, status, age or gender, the workplace setting should continue to be welcoming, respectful, inclusive, and supportive environments to all. But how does this ‘’new face’’ of office environments look?

Wastewater Treatment and Effluent Reuse Opportunities

This article looks at various waste water treatment and effluent reuse opportunities, including an in-depth look at the underlying biological and chemical reactions.

Conceptualizing a Feasible Pipeline Project

This article is written to give an overview of the stages involved in executing a pipeline project. There are different stages in executing a pipeline project; the construction and installation stages are the most visible. However, there are fundamental stages (Feasibility Studies and Conceptual Design) that must be executed appropriately before the detailed design and construction activities.

Distillation Columns: Plates and Packing

Chemical process industries consume vast amounts of energy, a large portion of which goes into separations, especially distillation. Therefore, distillation columns should be designed in the most optimal way possible. This article outlines and compares plates and packing for distillation columns, as well as evaluates their pros and cons

Refining process of crude oil

This article looks at the various processes involved in the process of refining crude oil

Overview of Gas Compression Facility

The article will give an overview of a typical natural gas compression facility. The article will also cover other ancillaries in a gas compression facility.
Hydrogen Fuel Overview

Hydrogen Fuel Overview

Hydrogen has been gaining increasing attention due to its energetic potential and reduced impact on the environment in contrast to traditional fuels. This article outlines the reasons behind hydrogen fuel as a valuable energy resource and the pathways to tackle its major limitations.
Celebrating the women in Architecture and Construction

Celebrating the women in Architecture and Construction

Women’s participation in architecture across the borders of the world has been remarkably varied, and has its scars on the face of history to show for it. The nature of this participation depended on time, place, and custom where women have historically served as patrons, architects, engineers, managers, and muses; acting as key figures on small and large scale construction projects.


Carbon capture has actually been in use for years. The oil and gas industries have used carbon capture for decades as a way to enhance oil and gas recovery. Only recently have we started thinking about capturing carbon for environmental reasons.
Architecture for The Modern Retail Fuel Station

Architecture for The Modern Retail Fuel Station

The fuel station become an icon in the landscape – not because of its stature, hierarchy, intrigue, beauty or even spatial experience, but merely for the distinct fact that it succeeds in its function: filling up thirsty fuel tanks and hungry stomachs, providing vehicle-services and guiding road users on their journey.
Horizontal Directional Drilling

Horizontal Directional Drilling

This article explains the principle of horizontal directional drilling as it relates to pipeline installation. It will also highlight some technical requirements that should be fulfilled for the successful execution of horizontal directional drilling.
Skid Mounted LNG Liquefaction For Flare Gas

Skid Mounted LNG Liquefaction For Flare Gas

commercial interest in implementing solutions for flare gas utilization has significantly improved, with a range of technology applications. One of the most promising options is the conversion of flare gas to LNG through use of mini or small scale LNG liquefaction plants – modular (skid-mounted) LNG liquefaction plants

Process Control Automation in Oil & Gas (Downstream)

Process Control Automation is the latest and innovative value-adding service in Oil & Gas downstream. In the Oil & Gas Industry, it is crucial to regulate process variables to achieve the task of Process automation.
Natural Gas Development in Africa

Natural Gas Development in Africa

Twenty-Two African countries have proven gas reserves. Nigeria, Libya, Algeria and Egypt contain 91% of Africa’s gas reserves, and Africa itself contains approximately 10% of the global gas reserves. This gas could help tremendously in addressing the severe power shortage that plagues most of Africa. This is one of the fundamental driving forces behind the LNG development in Africa.


Geomechanics is shown as an ally of high importance when facing the heterogeneous challenge that a hydraulic fracturing represents.
Fuel Gas Booster Skid Systems

Fuel Gas Booster Skid Systems

When a gas engine or gas turbine requires a pressure above the available pipeline pressure, a fuel gas booster is desired. The fuel gas booster (gas booster) compressor provides gaseous fuel (natural gas, biogas, or similar) to a gas turbine or piston-type engine at high pressure.


A shell and tube heat exchanger is one of the most popular types of exchangers due to its flexibility. In this type, there are two fluids with different temperatures, one of them flow through tubes and another flow-through shell.
Fluidised Bed Reactor Design for Pyrolysis

Fluidised Bed Reactor Design for Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis has been gaining increasing attention due to its high efficiency and reduced impact on the environment in contrast to the crude oil sector. It creates an opportunity to recover energy from agricultural residues. This article outlines how the design of the fluidised beds for combustion and pyrolysis should be conducted as well as safety measures that should be considered in the design.
Determining Construction Project Progress

Determining Construction Project Progress

How can a project be 90%, 0% and 20% complete in terms of progress, all at the same time? You may think I’ve gone completely mad and yet, I can show you, that all three these figures were simultaneously accurate at the time! Here’s what happened - let’s see if you can work it out?
JBCC Instruction to Accelerate

JBCC Instruction to Accelerate

In this article, we are going to look at the concept of acceleration and what you need to know, to protect your interests as a contractor or as a principal agent. We also ask the fundamental question: Can the principal agent issue an instruction to accelerate work under the JBCC Contract?
Technologies to Decarbonise the Marine Industry

Technologies to Decarbonise the Marine Industry

This article reviews various technologies that are currently explored by the marine industry to reduce CO2 emissions. For each option, we will discuss the GHG reduction potential, the feasibility from a technical point of view and the existing demonstrator.
Commercial Gas Metering Systems

Commercial Gas Metering Systems

This article is expert advice/opinion regarding gas measurement/quality monitoring issues and provides state-of-the-art commercially available solutions for accurate measurement of quality and quantity of gas.


A Heat Exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer. In exchangers, usually, there are no external heat or work interactions. They are used in both cooling and heating purposes.


This study Investigates the possibility that a rainwater harvesting system can provide reliable potable water for a rural household. It looks into system design that does not require external power and is simplistic in operation. And tests whether the addition of a slow sand filter in such a system design is a viable solution to provide potable water for the household.
Design Considerations For Underground RO Treatment

Design Considerations For Underground RO Treatment

The supply of potable water to underground mining operations poses unique challenges for each mining site. Advances in water treatment technologies make the option of point-of-use water treatment increasingly feasible. Of these technologies, Reverse Osmosis is emerging as the most cost-effective treatment towards potable quality.
Digitalisation How It Effects Leadership In The Workspace

Digitalisation How It Effects Leadership In The Workspace

Understand how digitalization effects top management leadership while condidering the different forms of leadership and their unique characteristics
Pipeline Pigging System

Pipeline Pigging System

Pipeline pigging is the process of using a device referred to as Pig to perform various tasks including cleaning, maintenance, inspection, batching, dimension check on a new or existing pipeline.
Geodesic Domes

Geodesic Domes – Where Architecture and Industrial Bulk Storage meet

A geodesic dome is a site-specific, structurally engineered, above-ground storage tank roof. It is made from an aluminum structure of interlocking panels, extruded struts, gusset plates, batten bars, and hubs that requires no welding
Ethics and Engineering

Ethics and Engineering

The work of engineers affects the lives of millions of people and society as a whole. As such, this presents an ethical and moral dimension to the decisions engineers are required to make.
Gas Processing

Gas Processing

The treatment of Natural gas is a technical procedure. The purpose of gas treatment is to clean the gas by extracting contaminants, fluids, and hydrocarbons (non-methane). In oil and gas terminology the processed gas is called pipeline friendly gas.
gas metering skid

Gas Metering Skid For The Application of Gas Supply System

A gas metering skid is a part of a gas production plant that is pre-assembled on a steel structure, engaged to the measurement of gas products. It can be installed at the onshore or offshore location based on the requirement.

Amine Gas Treatment

Amine gas treating, widely known as amine scrubbing, gas sweetening, and acid gas removal, represents the group of processes where aqueous solutions of various amines are used to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases. The H2S is gaseous acid; therefore, the removal process got the name sweetening. The amine gas treatment is used as a pretreatment of natural gas.

Consulting in Sweatpants

The demand to work remotely, or working-from-home (WFH), has steadily been increasing over the last few years. Remote working on a regular basis has been growing by 173% between 2005 and 2018, and 98% of employees in the United States have expressed their desire to work remotely on a permanent or at least part-time basis.

The Importance of Valves

This article discusses the importance of valve selection, placement and provides recommendations for general practice.
Ventilators - An Overview within the Covid-19 Context

Ventilators – An Overview within the Covid-19 Context

EPCM has developed a low-cost ventilator to address the fight against Covid-19 in poor regions. This article talks all things ventilators.

Performance Management For Millennials – Engineers Included!

Why is performance management a ’thing’ in organisations at all? The textbook and international codes of good practice tell us that a responsible company has a way of assessing and rewarding the contributions of its people. In this article we are going to check the assumptions that gave rise to this ‘thing’, why it went wrong and what can be done to get it right, if indeed there is a need for it at all.
Designing Your Lifestyle To Fight Corona

Designing Your Lifestyle To Fight Corona

In the current Corona crisis we all find ourselves in, people react differently. Some individuals chose to ignore the global crisis, others work on conspiracy theories, some panic and buy all the toilet paper, others choose to put up a fight. This article will help you with some practical guidance to fight Corona.
The SADC Natural Gas Market

The SADC Natural Gas Market

A grand vision of an interconnected gas market has been painted by South African Development Community (SADC) leadership. In order to better understand this vision, high level market research on the gas market in the SADC region has been undertaken, and we assess the current position of SADC, and suggest a roadmap to achieve it.
LPG Terminal Basics

LPG Terminal Basics

This article looks at all the basics of LPG storage. Including all the multitude of ancillary infrastucture needed in such terminals.
Plastic to Diesel The Pyrolysis Process

Plastic to Diesel The Pyrolysis Process

Research is being carried out into waste-to-energy processes and refuse derived fuels. Of these processes, pyrolysis is increasingly being used to turn waste plastic into diesel. This article will explore how pyrolysis works and if it can live up to the expectations.
Corrosion Protection of Offshore Facilities

Importance of Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Offshore Facilities

Advances in coating technology can offer significant cost saving and performance advantages if developed, specified, applied and maintained correctly.

Civil Engineering Works at Tank Farms

Tank farms are exciting places for engineers. Most people think that tank farms, with their storage vessels, pipes and pumps, are the exclusive hunting grounds of mechanical and chemical engineers, while civil engineering is about structures, roads, water and concrete, right?
Designing Your Business To Fight Corona

Designing Your Business To Fight Corona

This article will help you design a business for the future that needs to be virus proof. In particular, a Corona proof business.
Gas Distribution System

Gas Distribution System

Any gas distribution system consists of a myriad of various parts, from storing, transferring, controlling flows and pressures and temperatures to measuring volumes sold to end-users. And so much more.
Drilling, Dewatering, and Geosteering

Drilling, Dewatering, and Geosteering at remote locations

Whether remote taiga, barren desert, on high-elevation mountainside, or deep ocean, the most impressive and difficult production projects undertaken in today’s industries are those which take place in remote environments. These projects often require the skills of dozens of teams who draw materials and expertise from around the world.
Floating Power Plants

A Case or Two or Three For Floating Power Plants

There are power supply issues in many parts of the world. Floating power plants (FPP) offer a means to solve these problems, both in the first and third worlds. Placed in a marine environment, they don’t need land. They can be plugged in to local grids and from the point of arrival of the FPP at the site they can provide power within weeks.

Drilling Rigs, Engines, & Fuels

Upstream producers continually adopt the most agile and effective technologies, including dual-fuel and dedicated natural gas engines. Skyrocketing availability of inexpensive natural gas has produced an equally agile fuel source, while modular design allows for simple turnkey LNG fueled drilling rigs that reduce cost and emissions significantly for operators.
NG main

Gas Metering and Regulator Stations

Natural Gas Metering and Regulator stations form a vital link the the Oil and Natural Gas supply chain, providing key services and industry solutions, modular designs, and greater information connectivity.
Pigging Pipelines

Pigging Pipelines — An Overview

Pigging is the foundation of pipeline construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Designed to ensure continual product flow while minimizing capital and operating cost.
Building Information Modeling

BIM in Oil and Gas

Current BIM uses in Oil and Gas profoundly impact project teams, O&G companies, and data analytics as it spurs industry wide developments.
Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic Fracturing Overview

Hydraulic fracturing uses advanced well design and high pressure fluid injection to dramatically increase hydrocarbon (oil and natural gas) well production. One of two technologies responsible for the U.S. Shale Revolution.
horizontal drilling

Horizontal Directional Drilling for Oil and Natural Gas

Horizontal drilling allows operators to safely and more effectively access a reservoir—often several reservoirs. Reliable horizontal drilling has forever changed oil and natural gas extraction. Horizontal drilling is one of two technologies essential to the U.S. Shale Revolution.
Managing Millennials

Managing Millennials

The vast majority of our company are millennials. How do we manage them? Keep them motivated? Get the best out of them? It's not so hard, but it is a completely different way of approaching your team than traditional methods.
Water Bath Heaters

Gas Fired Water Bath Heaters

Gas-fired water bath heaters are a type of heater utilized in a wide variety of settings and industries for process heating. This article takes you through all the basics of this technology.
Pipeline Buoyancy

Pipeline Buoyancy

Pipeline buoyancy is one of the major challenges that must be resolved when a pipeline is to be installed offshore, across a river or swampy terrain. The pipeline must be analyzed for floatation during the design phase of the project. Any sections of a pipeline subjected to buoyancy force experiences bending stress which may result in structural failure of the pipeline, inline connections failure such as flange leakage.
Magnetic Flux Leakage

Inline Inspection with Magnetic Flux Leakage

Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique used to assess materials for corrosion, pitting, and deformations. MFL testing can be applied to pipelines, storage tanks, railways, cables, and other ferromagnetic materials. Inline Inspection (ILI) refers to the use of inspection devices commonly called intelligent pigs.
Moral Case for Fossil Fuels

The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels: Review

Our book review for Moral Case of Fossil Fuels by Alex Epstein. A fantastic read that demonstrates why the continued use of fossil fuels is not only necessary but morally defendable - providing us with cheap, and reliable energy.
The United States Shale Revolution

The United States Shale Revolution

Shortly after the U.S. Shale Revolution kicked off it began to pull the United States from recession with an enormous production of shale oil and natural gas. This revolution transformed the U.S. from an importer of natural gas to a dominant exporter, dramatically reduced emissions, increased electricity generation from natural gas and has exhibited tremendous influence on world politics.
Selecting Employees for the Engineering Environment

Selecting Employees for the Engineering Environment

When engineering firms recruit new graduate employees, they look at the candidates’ academic record, or may opt for giving bursaries to the top performing student and ensure they attract the best talent. Offering high initial salaries to graduates is another frequently employed technique to ensure the top employees can be recruited into the business. This is a problem.
South African Electric and Energy Sources

South Africa’s Electricity Generation & Energy Supply by Sources – Infographics

Infographics detailing the makeup of South Africa's Electricity Generation by Source, and South Africa's Energy Supply by Source
Offshore Mooring System

Offshore Moorings Systems Hierarchy

A breakdown of all offshore mooring systems in hierarchical form

Emerging Technologies at EPCM

There has been no major disruption and engineering and constructing firms are still mostly executing projects the way it has been done 20 years ago. As a result, there has not been real efficiency gain with reduced efficiencies reported in some countries. There is, therefore, a major potential in the engineering and construction industry to implement technologies to improve efficiencies.

Onsite Machining

The Miracle Worker of Modern Industry. Emergency and short notice situations are ideally solved by the use of onsite machining - engineers rapidly deploy portable machining tools to mitigate the disastrous impact of these scenarios.
hot tapping

Hot Tapping and Line Stopping – Overview

Few engineering procedures can modify, repair, and improve operating equipment while they remain in service; far less are the number of procedures that are also environmentally friendly, involve less risk, and firmly claim a 60%-80% expense reduction when compared with competing procedures. Nearly a century of widely practised hot tapping and plugging techniques confidently generate these facts.

Fuel Stations Development Process in South Africa

This extract discusses the typical process steps for developing service stations in South Africa.
Multi-Product Pipelines

Multi-Product Pipelines

Multi-Product Pipelines are used to transport different hydrocarbon liquid products in batches in a single pipeline such as diesel, petrol, kerosene and jet fuel. This article looks at the design standards and considerations that are crucial when designing, installing, and operating a multi-product pipeline.

Benefits of Millennials – 7 Reasons Why They Can Make You Millions

By 2020, Millennials will be the majority workforce. Managers HAVE to realise the benefits of Millennials and how they can contribute to project success!
Brulpadda Total's offshore discovery

What does Brulpadda, Total’s offshore discovery, mean for SA’s future?

The finding of significant quantities of gas condensate on the Brulpadda prospects, has ramifications for the energy sector and especially the gas economy in South Africa and has everyone including our president talking, but what does the find actually mean and how will it impact our industry.
Cathodic Protection

Cathodic Protection Basics

This article explains the basic operating principles as well as the requirements for a Cathodic Protection system.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) – An Overview

An overview of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), everything you need to know about, including History, Treating and Processing, LNG Market Outlook, etc.

Design of Bulk LPG Storage Facilities – Layout and sizing considerations

This article provides detailed information regarding the layout and sizing considerations for the design of bulk LPG storage facilities.

Modularization for hydrocarbon pipelines in Africa

In this article, EPCM will discuss the major items that can be supplied in modular format for hydrocarbon pipelines

Bulk LPG Storage Layout Requirements – SANS 10087-3 compared with NFPA 58

This article looks at comparing the site layout guidelines for bulk LPG storage between the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) 58 and SANS (South African National Standards) 10087 3 codes and standards. The article intent is only to indicate major differences, when designing a system.

That’s not my name!

Remembering a person's name is more important than you think, this article will strive to give you some basic techniques that can be followed to remember the names of people you meet.
Micro-Scale Natural Gas Liquefaction Processes

Natural Gas Liquefaction Processes: Design and Optimisation for Micro-Scale

A detailed research study has been completed on existing work specific to micro-scale (less than 275 tones per day or 5 million GJ per annum) liquefied natural gas (LNG) production facilities. Results were analysed, compared and summarised to serve as initial design conditions for proposed process designs.
Successful Hot Tapping

Hot Tapping – Advice on Successful Pipeline Tapping

In many cases for production lines and plants it is crucial to keep pipelines online and producing, however, it also becomes necessary to reroute, tie in additional lines or do maintenance on pipelines. This is where hot tapping can provide critical and much needed support to keep the product flowing in the line while doing work.
Cathodic Protection Case Study

Cathodic Protection Case Study – Padma Bangladesh

A case study for determining the correct cathodic protection for a pipeline in Bangladesh
Construction Delivery Models

Construction Delivery Models

Construction projects can be executed under a variety of delivery models, including design-build, early contractor involvement and alliance models, amongst others. In order to ensure the success of a construction project, it is vital to choose the most appropriate delivery model. Each delivery model comes with distinct features and the client should consider how the differences align with the project's goals and characteristics.
Building Information Modelling (BIM)

The Drafting Side of Building Information Modelling (BIM)

While there are numerous explanations on how to successfully execute projects within the Building Information Modelling (BIM) environment, the role of the drafting side in these explanations are often lacking. So, this article will highlight some of these challenges on the drafting side of the BIM industry, how to address them, as well as methods and tips to plan, start and successfully execute projects.
Pipeline Current Mapping Survey

Pipeline Current Mapping (PCM) Survey

The PCM has been designed to overcome the shortcomings of the existing techniques CP fault finding techniques and now provides pipeline engineers with an accurate, cost-effective product that can be used in all weather and ground conditions. This article explains more about Pipeline Current Mapping Surveys.

Marine Structured Wall PE Pipelines – KRAH

EPCM has partnered with Krah Pipes to offer turnkey solutions for large PE marine application pipelines (up to 5m) for cooling and desalination intake/outfalls. This article by Krah discuss the various technical matters related to the installation and performance of these type of marine pipelines
Retail Fuel Station Refurbishment

Retail Fuel Station Refurbishment Process

Refurbishing retail fuel stations come with its own set of challenges. This article discusses the process involved and the key challenges faced.
Infrastructure project finance

Infrastructure Project Finance – A Know How Guide

Project finance is as crucial to driving infrastructure projects and ensuring their success than engineering, if not more. A lot of time of EPCM is spent raising finance on our own or client's projects. Learn the basics here of what elements are role players are involved with infrastructure Project Financing.
spm calm buoy system

SPM Calm Buoy System – The Ultimate Guide

A Single Point Mooring (SPM) CALM system is an offshore mooring point used to facilitate tankers loading or discharging various forms of liquid product cargo near onshore storage or production fields. In this guide, we give you a full overview of what this system is all about.
Don't Delegate Like an Engineer

Don’t Delegate Like an Engineer

Engineers would rather do it themselves than fix their team member's work. An approach adopted by most in technical fields. Yet, the only way to grow and move forward, as an individual, team and company is to learn to effectively delegate.

Tropical Cyclone Modelling for Design of Coastal Infrastructure

Tropical cyclones (also known as hurricanes or typhoons) are formed over warm waters of the tropical oceans and have the potential to produce intense rain and abnormally high winds. This article outlines the difficulties faced by engineers tasked with designing coastal infrastructure to withstand such events and presents some best practice approaches for undertaking this task.
LNG as Vehicle Fuel

Business Case for LNG as Vehicle Fuel

Although a number of new options exist to fuel vehicles, it will take a long time to replace infrastructure for alternative fuels. Mature countries have started to move their vehicles onto natural gas, electricity, and hydrogen as alternatives to petrol and diesel. In this article, we looked at the option of fueling vehicles with Liquid Natural Gas (LNG)
Energy Outlook – Oil and Gas (DNV Report Notes)

Energy Outlook – Oil and Gas (DNV Report Notes)

In efforts to make the world’s energy system cleaner and more efficient, there is a focus on transitioning to a lower-carbon energy mix. DNV’s excellent Energy Transition Outlook (ETO) Report provides an outlook and forecast on the world’s energy mix to 2050. This summary focusses on the oil and gas sector report.

HDPE Retail Fuel Tanks

Driven by innovation and commitment to the industry, a lot of effort has gone into optimizing the retail fuel station market and to provide better value to existing and new clients. One area of specific improvement is material selection for underground fuel tanks.
Procurement From China

Procurement From China

This article explains the procurement process when procuring from China and also explain how to control quality when procuring from them. Although China has been trading with the whole world for almost 40 years now, a number of companies, especially from developing countries, are still very worried about the perceived quality they get from China. This needs to change.
EPC Project Execution

EPC Project Execution

With the African market becoming more mature and understanding the project execution models better, there has been a big rise in EPC (Engineering, procurement and construction) projects being executed in Africa. Although EPC project have been executed all over the world, it’s a very new model for Africa and South Africa and project houses do not really understand how to execute the projects using an EPC execution model.
Motivation In An Engineering Project Environment

Motivation In An Engineering Project Environment

This article focus on getting the most out of the people that work for you in the engineering project environment by motivating them correctly.
Don't Present Like An Engineer

Don’t Present Like An Engineer

Many really solid projects or products get lost in translation between engineers trying to present and sell their product and the audience they want to sell to. This article will thus attempt to give engineers some simple rules for technical presentations that they should follow to help them get their message across to the rest of the world.
Infrastructure Project Development: 

Infrastructure Project Development 101

Having worked with a number of project developers as well as developing projects in Africa and internationally, the following project development model was developed. By following the steps outlined below, project developers can improve their chances of closing projects, spend less money and time in developing the projects and improve the perception of project development.

EPCM and EPC Contracting Strategies

In the project environment, two major execution models are used; EPCM (Engineering, procurement and construction management) and EPC (Engineering, procurement, and construction). Although the outcome of the project should be very similar, the two models have distinct differences. It's important to understand when to select the correct model.

Industrial Uses of Drones

From rapid surveillance deployment to scanning an unreachable and/or dangerous area of interest, drones are proving to be extremely beneficial in places where man cannot reach or is unable to perform in a timely and efficient manner.
The infographic introduced by EPCM fractional distillation of crude oil

fractional distillation of crude oil

Fractional distillation of crude oil - an graphical interpretation
Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Value Chain

Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Value Chain – The Basics

Natural gas will be the world's faster growing major energy source through the year 2040. This energy source carries tremendous benefits for the consumers and the environment. It is versatile, clean burning, and abundant.
Concentrated Solar Power

An In-Depth Discussion on Concentrated Solar Power

Concentrated solar power (CSP) has long been proposed as a source for energy generation applications. The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of relevant theory regarding main aspects of concentrated solar powered energy production
Greencape Biogas Report:

Greencape Biogas Report – EPCM Summary Notes

EPCM's summary notes on the Greencape Western Cape BioGas Report

Direct DME Synthesis From Natural Gas

Dimethyl ether (DME) has been identified as an attractive fuel alternative and has seen an exponential increase in demand in the Asia Pacific. Dimethyl ether (DME) is a non-petroleum based transportation fuel, to act as a clean replacement for diesel fuel. Forecasts predict that the DME market will increase rapidly in the rest of the world.

Anaerobic Digester Design in South Africa

Energy derived from biogas is used in the form of fuel, heat, and electricity. Biogas is a renewable source of energy derived from biodegradable substrates such as agricultural wastes, animal wastes, domestic wastes, crops and industrial waste. It is produced by anaerobic digestion, which is a biochemical process in the absence of oxygen. The main product of biogas is methane and carbon dioxide.

Air Separation of Cryogenic Gases

An Air Separation Unit (ASU), is a type of technology that separates air into its main constituents. The most abundant components are Nitrogen, followed by oxygen and then argon, as well as other inert gases in small amounts.
Understanding Natural Gas and LNG

Understanding Natural Gas and LNG Options Handbook – Summary

The future of natural gas and liquid natural gas looks promising in Africa: Both as a natural gas resource and a potential import market. We summarise the key points here for 'Understanding Natural Gas and LNG Option Handbook' which has a specific focus on LNG for Africa

LNG as Marine Bunkering Fuel

The marine indsustry is increasingly looking at Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a cost effective alternative marine bunkering fuel in order to reduce emissions.

Where Natural Gas is Found and How it is Obtained

A high level look at how natural gas is formed and the typical methods use to extract this natural resource

Continuous Carbon Capture Process using Stirling Coolers

This article documents the current hypothesis for developing and testing a continuous Carbon Dioxide capture system using Stirling Coolers as the driving force.

Process Technologies for Helium Recovery from Natural Gas: A Review

This article reviews conventional processes used for recovery of helium from natural gas and examines the potential of emerging technologies for more efficient helium production processes, with main focus on Southern Africa’s new helium rich gas reserves.

Considerations for Seismic Analysis of Oil, Gas and Mineral Jetties

Exploring the aspects of seismic analysis of jetties used in the import/export of oil, gas, petroleum and other minerals in seismic active regions.
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API 650 Tank Fabrication

API 650 Tank Fabrication course presentation
Seawater Intake & Outfall Systems

Seawater Intake & Brine Outfall Systems

Systems, parts, and design considerations needed in the designing of large scale seawater intake & brine outfall systems for desalination plants or power station cooling water.
SPM image

Choosing Between SPM CALM and CBM Mooring

Discussed in this report are the characteristics of and comparisons between Single Point Mooring (SPM) systems and Conventional Buoy Mooring (CBM) systems, also referred to as Multi-Buoy Moorings (MBM).

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